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Enlightenment/American Revolution Study List Review.

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Presentation on theme: "Enlightenment/American Revolution Study List Review."— Presentation transcript:

1 Enlightenment/American Revolution Study List Review

2  Idea that all people were born with certain rights “life, liberty, pursuit of happiness”  Created by John Locke

3 an agreement by which people gave up their freedom to a powerful government in order to avoid chaos.

4  Laws that governed human nature  Laws discoverable by reason

5  French for “philosopher”  French thinker who desired reform in society during the Enlightenment.

6  (1694-1778) French philosopher and author  Imprisoned in the Bastille  Used with to expose the abuses of government and society  advocated a tolerant approach to religion.

7  (1689-1755) French political philosopher  explored democratic theories of government. Proposed a government divided into 3 branches, greatly influenced the United States Constitution.

8  (1632-1704) English philosopher  Developed political and economic theories during the Enlightenment.  Wrote Two Treatises on Government in which he declared that people have a right to rebel against governments that do not protect their natural rights.

9  English philosopher who lived through the English Civil War  Thought people were naturally cruel, greedy, and selfish  Supported powerful government; For him such a government was an absolute monarchy, which could impose order and compel obedience.

10  (1712-1778)  French political philosopher Believed that people in their natural state were basically good and were corrupted by the evils of society, especially the unequal distribution of property

11  labored for more than 25 years to produce a 28 volume Encyclopedia, which means “circle of teachings”.  His purpose was to “change the general way of thinking”  The Encyclopedia articles:  Denounced slavery  Praised freedom of expression.  Urged education for all.  His articles and positions reflect the ideas of humanism as seen in the Renaissance.

12  a time of optimism and possibility from the late 1600s to the late 1700s; also called the Age of Reason.

13  (1723-1790) Scottish economist  Became the leading advocate of laissez-faire economics  Considered by some to be the “father of modern economics” wrote the first true text on economics, The Wealth of Nations, in 1776.

14  policy allowing business to operate with little or no government interference.

15  ornate style of art and architecture popular in the 1600s and 1700s. Palace at Versailles

16  elegant style of art and architecture  made popular during the mid- 1700s, featured designs with the shapes of leaves, shells, and flowers.

17  gatherings in which intellectual and political ideas were exchanged during the Enlightenment.

18  restriction on access to ideas and information

19  the absolute monarchs in 18 th century Europe who ruled according to the principles of the Enlightenment. Catherine the Great of Russia Joseph II of Austria Enlightened despots were absolute rulers who used their power to bring about political and social change

20  Most radical of enlightened despots.  Granted toleration to Protestants and Jews.  Ended censorship and tried to control the Catholic Church.  Sold church property to build hospitals.  Abolished serfdom.  Eliminated the death penalty and torture.  Unfortunately these reforms only remained  until his death then things went back to the  way they were. * Serfdom was the enforced labour of serfs on the fields of landowners, in return for protection and the right to work on their leased fields.

21  Was interested in Enlightenment ideas but intended to give up no power  Made some limited reforms in law and government.  Granted nobles a charter of rights.  Criticized the institution of serfdom  Wouldn’t abolish it because she would lose the support of wealthy land owners if she did. Catherine the Great

22  Exerted tight control over subjects, but saw himself as a “first servant of the state.”  Tolerated religious differences.  Except for Jews he tried to limit the number of Jews allowed to live in Prussia.  Distributed seeds and tools to peasants.

23  radical change, far- reaching effects.

24  King of England during the time of the American Revolution

25  1732-1799  First president of the United States  commanded the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War  served as a representative to the Continental Congress.

26  Law passed in 1765 by the British Parliament that imposed taxes on items such as newspapers and pamphlets in the American colonies; repealed in 1766

27  (1743-1826) American statesman  Third president of the United States, member of two Continental Congresses  Declaration’s main author

28  Letter to King George III, written by Thomas Jefferson, declaring the 13 colonies’ independence (life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness) from Great Britain.

29  Basic principle of the American system of government which asserts that the people are the source of any and all governmental power  Government can exist only with the consent of the governed.

30  government in which power is divided between the national, or federal, government and the states.

31  Treaty of 1763 that ended the Seven Years’ War and resulted in British dominance of the Americas

32  (1706-1790) American statesman; he was a philosopher, scientist, inventor, writer, publisher, first U.S. postmaster, and member of the committee to draft the Declaration of Independence.

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