Presentation on theme: "Enlightenment/American Revolution Study List Review."— Presentation transcript:
Enlightenment/American Revolution Study List Review
Idea that all people were born with certain rights “life, liberty, pursuit of happiness” Created by John Locke
an agreement by which people gave up their freedom to a powerful government in order to avoid chaos.
Laws that governed human nature Laws discoverable by reason
French for “philosopher” French thinker who desired reform in society during the Enlightenment.
(1694-1778) French philosopher and author Imprisoned in the Bastille Used with to expose the abuses of government and society advocated a tolerant approach to religion.
(1689-1755) French political philosopher explored democratic theories of government. Proposed a government divided into 3 branches, greatly influenced the United States Constitution.
(1632-1704) English philosopher Developed political and economic theories during the Enlightenment. Wrote Two Treatises on Government in which he declared that people have a right to rebel against governments that do not protect their natural rights.
English philosopher who lived through the English Civil War Thought people were naturally cruel, greedy, and selfish Supported powerful government; For him such a government was an absolute monarchy, which could impose order and compel obedience.
(1712-1778) French political philosopher Believed that people in their natural state were basically good and were corrupted by the evils of society, especially the unequal distribution of property
labored for more than 25 years to produce a 28 volume Encyclopedia, which means “circle of teachings”. His purpose was to “change the general way of thinking” The Encyclopedia articles: Denounced slavery Praised freedom of expression. Urged education for all. His articles and positions reflect the ideas of humanism as seen in the Renaissance.
a time of optimism and possibility from the late 1600s to the late 1700s; also called the Age of Reason.
(1723-1790) Scottish economist Became the leading advocate of laissez-faire economics Considered by some to be the “father of modern economics” wrote the first true text on economics, The Wealth of Nations, in 1776.
policy allowing business to operate with little or no government interference.
ornate style of art and architecture popular in the 1600s and 1700s. Palace at Versailles
elegant style of art and architecture made popular during the mid- 1700s, featured designs with the shapes of leaves, shells, and flowers.
gatherings in which intellectual and political ideas were exchanged during the Enlightenment.
restriction on access to ideas and information
the absolute monarchs in 18 th century Europe who ruled according to the principles of the Enlightenment. Catherine the Great of Russia Joseph II of Austria Enlightened despots were absolute rulers who used their power to bring about political and social change
Most radical of enlightened despots. Granted toleration to Protestants and Jews. Ended censorship and tried to control the Catholic Church. Sold church property to build hospitals. Abolished serfdom. Eliminated the death penalty and torture. Unfortunately these reforms only remained until his death then things went back to the way they were. * Serfdom was the enforced labour of serfs on the fields of landowners, in return for protection and the right to work on their leased fields.
Was interested in Enlightenment ideas but intended to give up no power Made some limited reforms in law and government. Granted nobles a charter of rights. Criticized the institution of serfdom Wouldn’t abolish it because she would lose the support of wealthy land owners if she did. Catherine the Great
Exerted tight control over subjects, but saw himself as a “first servant of the state.” Tolerated religious differences. Except for Jews he tried to limit the number of Jews allowed to live in Prussia. Distributed seeds and tools to peasants.