Presentation on theme: "1600 BC-1450 AD. People began to settle in China near the Chang Jiang Valley as early as 7000BC. The huge Chang Jiang River was a great commodity."— Presentation transcript:
People began to settle in China near the Chang Jiang Valley as early as 7000BC. The huge Chang Jiang River was a great commodity and essential to sustaining civilization.
The area North of the Chang Jiang along the Huang He River was much better for growing cereals like millet and wheat.
The rivers supported farming and the domestication of animals. The population began to explode.
The first Chinese dynasty started around 1500BC. The Shang were strongest in the North near Huang He and ruled for about 400 years.
Created China’s first writing system Wrote on cattle bones and turtle shells These were heated until cracking. Priest would read the cracks to predict the future.
Bronze tools Jade ornaments Chariots, powerful bows, and bronze armor Calendar based on the cycles of the moon
Lasted from 1100BC to 771BC, the longest in China’s history. Chosen by heaven. (The Mandate of Heaven) Started new political order, Emperor owned everything and gave land to those (lords) that served for him. At the bottom of the hierarchy were the peasants, who grew food for the lords.
In 771BC the Zhou political system broke down when the lords lost loyalty for the Emperors. China broke into many kingdoms that constantly fought.
King Qin end the Warring States Period by being strong enough to unify all of China under his control in221BC. He changed his name to Shi Huangdi ruled with an iron fist.
Greatly changed politics in china Burned books against his beliefs Took power away from lords Ordered nobles to move to the capital Xi’an (Shee AHN) If kept close they could not rebel Dynasty fell after his death
Wanted everyone to think and act the same Rewrote laws that applied to everyone in China New money system Huge infrastructure of roads and canals Great Wall of China Later added to by others
The Han Dynasty lasted 400 years (205BC- 220AD) Liu Bang 1 st emperor Former peasant, earned the trust of all and united his citizens Free people of a harsh government, lowered taxes, relied on educated people help him rule
Wudi took control in 140BC and reversed all that Bang did. He made Confucianism China’s official governing philosophy
Based on the ideas of Confucius and emphasized morals, ethics, respect for elders, and loyalty towards family The idea was if people thought the same they would not rebel
1 st - Emperor, court and scholars 2 nd - Peasants-largest 90% 3 rd - Artisians- made goods 4 th - Merchants- buy and sell Social class did not mean wealth. Merchants were wealthier than peasants but lower in social class
Respect for elders and dead Father was head of the house Women and children obeyed fathers Boys were valued more than girls “raising daughters is like raising children for another family
Figure painting Poetry (Fu and Shi) Paper Sundial Seismograph Acupuncture
By 100 BC it connected China to SW Asia By 100 AD it connected China to the Roman Empire in the West Merchants carried small items- spices, gold, silk etc… that they could sell for top dollar
When the Han Dynasty collapsed in 220AD several rival kingdoms, lead by military leaders, ruled China until 589 AD. This is known as the Period of Disunion.
The Sui Dynasty ruled China from 589-618 by Yang Jian. The short dynasty was highlighted the start of the construction of the Grand Canal, connecting northern and southern China.
Called the golden age of China because of the advancements in law, military, art, and poetry. Included the rule of Empress Wu, the only woman to do so.
The Tang Dynasty saw an explosion in population. With over a million citizens in the capital of Chang’an (now known as Xi’an) it was the largest city in the world. Like other trading cities, Chang’an housed many cultures, religions and philosophies.
Disorder ensued for 53 years when the Tang dynasty fell. The time was called the “Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms”. In 960 the Song Dynasty rose and ruled for the next 300 years, ending in 1260. Like the Tang Dynasty, it was a time of great achievements.
Cities continued to thrive during the Song Dynasty. The capital, Kaifeng, had nearly a million citizens and a dozen more with ½ a million.
Trade was important to China and its growth. Merchants travelled by land and water to all parts of Asia thanks to Grand Canal started during the Sui Dynasty. Silk and Porcelain were very valuable trading commodities.
Woodblock printing, gun powder, and the magnetic compass were among the most important inventions during the Tang and Song Dynasties. Their impact on society was immense.
The dominate philosophy in China. Confucius lived over 1000 years before the Song Dynasty ruled China, his ideas had a dramatic effect on how the Song government was run. 2 basic ideas Ren= concern for others Li= appropriate behavior
Neo- Confucianism developed after the Song dynasty and emphasized spiritual matters. It still promoted proper behavior, but was now more accepted by the Buddhists.
A scholar official is an educated member of government. The Chinese government formed a bureaucracy, unelected government officials, to govern its people. Civil service, persons that work as government officials, must pass a rigorous test based deeply in Confucianism to be appointed one of these governing jobs.
Mongolians- nomadic people of northern China the attacked and ruled China in 1206 under the leadership of Genghis Khan. He lead ruthless attacks on men, women, and children. Within 20 years he ruled a large part of Asia. Genghis grandson finished the job. By 1279 all of China was under foreigners rule for the first time.
The Yuan Dynast, led by Ghengis’s grandson Kublai Khan, worked with the Chinese but kept them under the role of the new government. The dynasty ended when a failed attempt to take Japan sparked a series of disastrous events for the Mongolians. By 1368 under Zhu Yuanzhang, China was once again controlled by the Chinese.
Lasted nearly 300 years (1368-1644) Massive sailing projects led by Zheng He The creation of the Forbidden City and other great buildings They also fixed and extended the Great Wall of China.
Under Ming rule, the government wanted to eliminate all foreign influences. The Chinese were heavily censored which help keep the dynasty from revolt.
In 1430 a new Ming emperor order Zheng He’s fleet to be dismantled. This isolation led to the fall of the empire. As China seat in solitude, the western world made great advances and took control of parts of China.