WHAT IS THE ARAB-ISRAELI CONFLICT? Conflict between Israel and Arabs (mostly Muslim) over land in Palestine (many of the Arabs are referred to as Palestinians) Many Arabs/Palestinians are angry about the creation of Israel and seek to create their own nation (state) in the area some Arabs/Palestinians want the destruction of Israel, some are willing to accept the existence of Israel
ARAB ISRAELI CONFLICT cont. PALESTINE Term referring to the area between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River Jews consider it their homeland (Biblical Times) Zionism – Movement for the creation and support of a Jewish state/country (Israel) Palestinians who have been living there for many years also claim the land
ARAB-ISRAELI CONFLICT cont. Balfour Declaration – In 1917 the British government declared that it would support the creation of a Jewish state (country) 1947 – The land of Palestine is divided between Jews and Palestinians (Jewish population is happy, Palestinians and Arabs are furious, why?) Creation of Israel – in 1948 David Ben-Gurion became the first Prime Minister of the newly born country, Israel – On the next day Arab countries (Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, Transjordan, Egypt ) launched an attack on the new country, Israel won
ARAB-ISRAELI CONFLICT cont. Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) – created in 1964 with the goals of eliminating Israel and creating a country for Palestinians (Yasser Arafat became the leader) 6 Days War – In 1967 Israel attacked Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, and Syria (they feared an attack by Arab nations) Israel took: a.Gaza Strip and Sinai Peninsula from Egypt b.Golan Heights from Syria c.West Bank from Jordan
ARAB-ISRAELI CONFLICT cont. Camp David Accords – In 1979 Egypt and Israel signed a treaty in which Egypt recognized (acknowledged) Israel’s right to exist and Israel gave back the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt
MAP OF ISRAEL AFTER THE WAR OF INDEPENDENCE (1949)
A/I CONFLICT 1. BALFOUR DECLARATION 2. Hezbollah 3. SIX DAYS WAR 4. 1973 WAR (YOM KIPPUR WAR) 5. ISRAELI WAR FOR INDEPENDENCE (1948) 6. CAMP DAVID ACCORDS 7. Gaza Strip 8. Golan Heights 9. West Bank 10.Hamas 11.Creation of PLO
Song/Poem (11) Crossword Puzzle 2-4 Paragraph Essay (11) Pictorial Timeline (11) 11Question Multiple Choice Quiz with an answer key Other/Use your imagination (11) Crossword Puzzle SONG/POEM (11) 11 Question Multiple Choice Quiz with an Answer Key
NATIONALISM IN THE MIDDLE EAST European countries controlled much going on in first ½ of 20 th century Many Arab people wanted to create their own, independent nations Nationalism video Egypt’s anthem
ARAB INDEPENDENCE In the first 50 years of the 20 th century several countries gained independence from outsiders Pan-Arabism – movement aimed at building closer cultural and political ties among Arabs (grew strong during the 1940s) Arab League – formed in 1945 to unify the Arab World
GULF WAR 1.When was it? 2.Who fought? 3.Why was it fought? 4.Who was the leader of our enemy? 5.Who was our president?
PERSIAN GULF WAR In 1990 Iraq’s President, Saddam Hussein, sent Iraqi forces into the small country of Kuwait – Hussein claimed that: 1.Kuwait was really part of Iraq 2.Kuwait was stealing oil 3.Kuwait over-producing oil (driving down the price) 4.Kuwait was “unfair” in demanding to be repaid money it lent to Iraq – He was hoping to increase Iraqi power/influence
PERSIAN GULF WAR cont. Saudi Arabia asked the U.S. for help because they feared Iraq might attack them too The U.S., plus many other nations, including Arab nations, sent forces to Saudi Arabia Iraq crossed into Kuwait and the international force warned them to get out or else (Iraq didn’t leave) January, 1991 – U.S. bombs Baghdad, capital of Iraq
PERSIAN GULF WAR cont. Iraq launched missiles against Saudi Arabia and Israel and set fire to oil fields in Kuwait Coalition forces moved into Kuwait and Iraq and defeated the Iraqi forces in less than 100 hours The war was over by March 1, 1991
RESULTS OF THE WAR 1.Coalition forces left Iraq 2. Hussein remained in power 3.Hussein crushed groups that used the war as a chance to rebel against him 4. Rebuilding stocks of chemical and biological weapons???
TERRORISM the use of violence and threats to intimidate or coerce, especially for political purposes. – Often target civilians and the goal is to spread FEAR/TERROR
Terrorist – person whose extremist views have led them to believe violence is justified Cause – feel their cause is being neglected and/or ignored Violence – believe that they have no other option left but violence to bring attention to their cause, which will lead to change TERRORISM : WHO AND WHY? T C V
Why have terrorists attacked America? (BRAINSTORM AS MANY REASONS YOU CAN THINK OF)
1. OUR SUPPORT OF ISRAEL (think about the Arab/Israeli Conflict) 2. INVOLVEMENT IN PAST WARS (ex. First Gulf War) 3. TROOPS STATIONED IN CERTAIN COUNTRIES (currently have troops in Afghanistan and Iraq among many other places) 4. ECONOMIC POLICIES 5. SPREAD OF AMERICAN CULTURE IN THE ME 6. BELIEVE “WESTERN” CULTURE IS DESTROYING THEIR CULTURE
Fundamentalism a movement or attitude stressing strict and literal adherence to a set of basic principles
9/11 Memorial Website The official 9/11 Memorial’s website has an amazingly well crafted timeline of the events of 9/11. 9/11 Timeline
9/11 Targets: WHY? NYC World Trade Center – Economics Pentagon – Foreign Policy Flight 93 – White House, Capitol Building??
Results of 9/11 U.S. invaded Afghanistan (2001-present) U.S. invaded Iraq (2003-2011) Al Qaeda has continued to launch smaller attacks around the world Al Qaeda’s ability to function has been greatly diminished
War in Afghanistan (2001-present) Following 9/11, it became clear that the Taliban had allowed al Qaeda to live and train in Afghanistan.
Who are the Taliban? Extreme Islamic Fundamentalists Came to power in 1996 Imposed strict Islamic rule with harsh punishment – EX: females could not attend school Islamic Police Beating a woman in Kabul during Taliban rule
Osama bin Laden – leader of Al-Qaeda Born in Saudi Arabia Stripped of his citizenship by Saudi Arabia during the 1990s Lived in Sudan until he was kicked out in 1998 Then given safe haven by the Taliban in Afghanistan – It was here that he (al Qaeda) planned 9/11
U.S. vs. Taliban/al Qaeda 2001: U.S. invaded Afghanistan in order to destroy al Qaeda Taliban protected al Qaeda U.S. declared it would also remove the Taliban
War in Afghanistan Today, the U.S. continues to battle the Taliban Taliban continues to fight in Afghanistan, but is also hiding in Pakistan Osama bin Laden was killed in Pakistan (2011) 60 Minutes: Oct. 2011 60 Minutes
60 Minutes – YouTube Links 60 Minutes: Combat in Afghanistan (Sep 2009) – http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rZDonqtAf- 8&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1&safe=acti ve http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rZDonqtAf- 8&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1&safe=acti ve 60 Minutes: Running the War (Oct 2011) – http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xta2bM_npuE&safet y_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1&safe=active http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xta2bM_npuE&safet y_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1&safe=active 60 Minutes: Killing bin Laden (2012) – http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AMlfhlzs67E&safety_ mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1&safe=active http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AMlfhlzs67E&safety_ mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1&safe=active
Following 9/11... President Bush pushed for an invasion of Iraq WHY? – WMDS? (Nukes, Bio, Chem) – Al Qaeda connection? Many other nations wanted more of an investigation before invading Iraq – U.S. invaded in March, 2003 – Remember, we were already in Afghanistan.
Iraq War (2003-2011) Saddam Hussein was easily defeated (2003) & later executed (2006) – No WMDs were found – No connection to al Qaeda was found Anti-American insurgency lasted long after Hussein was executed Fighting among different Iraqi groups continues to this day A (shaky) democratic government does exist in Iraq American troops left Iraq in 2011
Iraq War Timeline http://www.cfr.org/iraq/timeline-iraq- war/p18876 http://www.cfr.org/iraq/timeline-iraq- war/p18876 Answer the provided questions about the War in Iraq (2003-2011) life. ANSWER COMPLETELY. THIS IS NOT HOMEWORK. This will be collected and graded for accuracy. It is worth 33 points. (3 points for each question)
Mohamed Bouazizi Time Magazine – Mohamed Bouazizi – http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,2044723,00.html http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,2044723,00.html Guardian Timeline of Arab Spring – http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/interactive/2011/mar/22/middle-east- protest-interactive-timeline http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/interactive/2011/mar/22/middle-east- protest-interactive-timeline Mohamed Bouazizi Tunisian Street Vendor Why did this man set himself on fire? What effect did it have on the Arab World?
Causes of the Arab Spring We will read a report on this subject together. We will talk to the text together. GOAL: Make a list of causes of the Arab Spring Link to Article: – http://fcohrdreport.readandcomment.com/the- arab-spring/the-causes-of-the-arab-spring/ http://fcohrdreport.readandcomment.com/the- arab-spring/the-causes-of-the-arab-spring/
Arab Spring: Tunisia Government overthrown on Jan. 14, 2011. President Zine el Abidine Ben Ali fled to Saudi Arabia exile. Transitional elections held on Oct. 23, 2011.
Arab Spring: Egypt Government overthrown on Feb. 11, 2011. President Hosni Mubarak stepped down. Faces charges of killing unarmed protesters. Elections held on Nov. 28, 2011.
Arab Spring: Libya Anti-government protests began on Feb. 15, 2011 Became a Civil War: – opposition forces vs. Moammar Gadhafi loyalists. – U.S. and others stepped in to protect civilians. Gadhafi’s government overthrown on Aug. 23, 2011 Gadhafi was killed by transition forces on Oct. 20.
Arab Spring: Yemen Ongoing protests since Feb. 3, 2011. President Ali Abdullah Saleh was injured in an attack. On Nov. 23, Saleh ended his 33-year reign. Saleh has disappeared from public eye.
Arab Spring: Syria Protests for political reforms have been ongoing since Jan. 26, 2011. Clashes continue between the Syrian army and protesters. Thousands have been killed. Thousands have become refugees. President Bashar al-Assad: “I will live and die in Syria.” 11/13/12: France recognized the opposition – Syrian National Council Bashar al-Assad Syrian Dictator
Syrian Civil War (2011-present) Cities controlled by pro-Assad forces Cities controlled by anti-Assad forces Ongoing fighting/unclear situation
The Syrian Question Should the west get involved in this conflict? – Remember Libya? In considering this question, first think about the possible outcomes of the conflict.
Prompts In your notes, copy and answer the following questions while watching the video: – What observations can you make about the rebel/opposition movement? – Why has the west been reluctant to send more weapons/technology to Syrian rebels? – Why does the west worry about Islamic Fundamentalist in Syria?
60 Minutes Prompts What observations can you make about the rebel/opposition movement? Why has the west been reluctant to send more weapons/technology to Syrian rebels? Why does the west worry about Islamic Fundamentalist in Syria?
60 Minutes: Aleppo 60 Minutes: Aleppo, Syria – http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n4CDQciS0kE &safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1&saf e=active http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n4CDQciS0kE &safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1&saf e=active Answer the prompts from the previous slide while watching the video. You will be expected to share.