4How would you react to a revolutionary idea? You are a university student during the late 1600s, and it seems that the world as you know it has turned upside down. An English scientist name Isaac Newton has just theorized that the universe is not a dark mystery but a system whose parts work together in ways that can be expressed mathematically. This is just the latest in a series of arguments that have challenged old ways of thinking in fields from astronomy to medicine. Many of these ideas promise to open the way for improving society. And yet they are such radical ideas that many people refuse to accept them.
5Painting by Joseph Wright that shows adults and children looking at a miniature planetarium and its new ideas about the universe.
6In your groups, discuss: Why might people have difficulty accepting new ideas or ways of thinking?What are the risks of embracing a different idea? What are some risks of always refusing to do so?What are some modern examples of revolutionary ideas?
8The EnlightenmentDEFINITION: Also known as the Age of Reason, this was an 18th century European movement in which thinkers attempted to apply the principles of reason and the scientific method to all aspects of society.WRITE THIS SLIDE
9Origins of the Enlightenment The Enlightenment started from some key ideas put forth by two English political thinkers of the 1600s, Thomas Hobbes and John LockeBoth men experienced the political turmoil in England at the beginning of the 17th century, but they came to two very different conclusions about government and human nature
11Thomas Hobbes’ Philosophy Humans are naturally violent and disorderlyAnarchy would prevail without a strong governmentAbsolute monarchy works wellPeople have no right to rebel no matter how unhappy they are with their governmentWrote LeviathanSocial contractRuler needed total power to keep citizens under control
12John Locke’s Philosophy People are naturally moral and reasonableFavored the ideas of self governmentPeople could govern their own affairsPeople are born free and equalBorn with three natural rights: life, liberty and propertyPeople have the right to overthrow their government if it is not protecting their rightsWrote Two Treatises of Government
13Enlightenment Philosophers Thomas HobbesJohn LockePeople are naturally bad - violent and disorderlyPeople are naturally good – moral and reasonableNeed a strong government to keep them in lineSelf governmentPeople have no right to rebelPeople can overthrow governmentWRITE THIS SLIDEBorn free and equal with natural rights (life, liberty and property)WRITE THIS SLIDE
14What do you think?Based on your personal experiences, things you’ve seen throughout your life, school, etc., who do you support , Thomas Hobbes or John Locke?