Presentation on theme: " The current administration has highlighted five "locomotives" to stimulate economic growth: Extractive industries Agriculture Infrastructure "— Presentation transcript:
The current administration has highlighted five "locomotives" to stimulate economic growth: Extractive industries Agriculture Infrastructure Housing Innovation. Colombia is third largest exporter of oil to the United States. The current administration introduced legislation to better distribute extractive industry royalties and compensate Colombians who lost their land due to decades of violence.
Foreign direct investment reached a record $10 billion in 2008, but dropped to $7.2 billion in 2009, before beginning to recover in 2010, notably in the oil sector It also has a highly stratified society where the rich families of Spanish descent have benefited from this wealth to a far greater degree than the majority, mixed-race population.
1946, a period of insurrection broke out after the assassination of the liberal presidential candidate Jorge Eliécer Gaitán. It is referred to as La Violencia and claimed hundreds of thousands of lives by 1958. Leaders during this time of crisis were: Laureano Gómez (1950–1953) Gen. Gustavo Rojas Pinilla (1953–1956) Military junta (1956–1957)
Marxist guerrilla groups organized in the 1960s and 1970s, May 19th Movement (M-19) National Liberation Army (ELN) Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) These groups plunged the country into violence and instability.
In the 1970s and 1980s, Colombia became one of the centers for drug production and trafficking and the Medellin and Cali cartels virtually controlled the country.
In the 1990s, numerous right-wing paramilitary groups also formed, made up of drug traffickers and landowners. The umbrella group for these paramilitaries is the United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia (AUC).
Belisario Betancur, a Conservative who assumed the presidency in 1982, unsuccessfully attempted to stem the violence.
Colombia became a public battleground with bombs, killings, and kidnappings. By 1989, homicide had become the leading cause of death in the nation.
Elected president in 1990, César Gaviria proposed lenient punishment in exchange for surrender by the leading drug dealers. Under his administration Pablo Escobar was shot and killed
Ernesto Samper became president in 1994. he was accused of accepting campaign contributions from the Cali cartel, but the House of Representatives absolved him of the charges. Nonetheless his relationship with the U.S. had been compromised
Andrés Pastrana was elected president in 1998, pledging to clean up corruption. His negotiations with FARC and ELN culminated in the grant of a demilitarized safe haven for the guerrillas but Pastrana backed out of the deal at the last minute. Critics accused him of possibly accepting bribes from leading FARC and ELN members, His administration proposed and initially oversaw the implementation of the Plan Colombia aid package and anti-drug strategy.
In Dec. 1999, the Colombian military announced that 2,787 people were kidnapped that year— the largest number in the world The murder rate soared in 1999, with some 23,000 people reported killed The violence has created more than 100,000 refugees, while 2 million Colombians have fled the country in recent years.
In Aug. 2000, the U.S. government approved “Plan Colombia,” pledging $1.3 billion to fight drug trafficking. In Aug. 2001, Pastrana expanded the rights of the military in dealing with rebels.
Alvaro Uribe easily won the presidential election in 2002. He pledged to get tough on the rebels and drug traffickers by increasing military spending and seeking U.S. military cooperation. Uribe increased Colombia's security forces with the help of U.S. special forces, launched an aggressive campaign against the drug trade, and passed several economic reform bills.
In May 2004, the UN announced that Colombia's 39-year-long drug war had created the worst humanitarian crisis in the Western Hemisphere. More than 2 million people have been forced to leave their homes and several Indian tribes are close to extinction.
During 2003 more than 16,000 suspected leftist guerrillas and right-wing paramilitary vigilantes either surrendered, were apprehended, or were killed. Since 2003, the right-wing paramilitary group AUC has been involved in peace talks with the government and has demobilized 4,000 troops Although the two other major armed groups, left-wing FARC and ELN, continue to finance themselves through kidnapping and drug trafficking, governmental efforts have been successful in significantly reducing the kidnapping rate.
By 2006, the United States had invested $4 billion into Plan Colombia The program has eradicated more than a million acres of coca plants, Colombian drug traffickers are still managing to supply 90% of the cocaine used in the U.S. the same percentages supplied five years ago, when the program began. In 2006, a U.S. government survey acknowledged that coca production in the country had in fact increased by 26%, and that aerial spraying of the illegal crops—the primary strategy of Plan Colombia—was failing.
On May 28, 2006, President Uribe was reelected with 62% of the vote. Economic growth and a reduction in paramilitary violence were believed to be responsible for his landslide reelection.
In November 2007, the Colombian army captured FARC rebels who were carrying videos, photographs, and letters of about 15 hostages Hostages included three American military contractors and Ingrid Betancourt, former Colombian presidential candidate.
Uribe withdrew his support of Hugo Chavez’s attempts to negotiate with FARC and relations soured Chavez subsequently withdrew the Venezuelan ambassador to Colombia.
After much negotiation between Chavez and FARC, on January 10, 2008, FARC rebels freed two hostages, On February 28, 2008, FARC rebels released four more Colombian hostages
On March 1, 2008, Colombian forces crossed into Ecuadorean territory and killed FARC rebel leader, Raúl Reyes, and 23 other rebels. In response, Venezuela and Ecuador broke off diplomatic relations with Colombia and sent troops to the Colombian borders The OAS approved a resolution, which declared that the Colombian raid into Ecuador was a violation of sovereignty. On March 6, Nicaragua broke off diplomatic relations with Colombia to demonstrate unity with Ecuador. On March 7, 2008, during a summit meeting the leaders of Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela, and Nicaragua ended their diplomatic dispute over Colombia's raid into Ecuador.
On July 2, 2008, 15 more hostages, including three U.S. military contractors as well as Ingrid Betancourt were freed by commandos who infiltrated FARC's leadership. Four more FARC-held hostages were released in February 2009
Former Defense Minister Juan Manuel Santos handily won the second round of presidential elections in June 2010, taking 69% of the vote. He promised to maintain the policies of former president Uribe, including the campaign against FARC guerrillas and forging a close relationship with the United States. Santos was largely responsible for planning and carrying out the government's successful assault on FARC.
In late February 2012, FARC announced an end to its long time practice of kidnapping civilians for financial gains. The announcement was made on FARC's website. FARC, the chief rebel group in Colombia, also said it would soon free the remaining ten prisoners of war. The ten security force members have been held in captivity for 14 years.
On May 15, 2012, the United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement (CTPA) went into effect. Signed back on November 22, 2006, the agreement was made to eliminate tariffs and other trade barriers for goods and services between Colombia and the United States. Both countries worked together on resolving issues such as sanitary barriers in agriculture, including safety inspection procedures on certain food items. The agreement granted duty-free treatment to farm products and a variety of foods. Colombia should benefit from the deal considerably with at least a ten percent increase to their exports, while creating new jobs and economic growth.
MAY 2014 ELECTION: Santos- 25% VS Oscar Zuluaga 29% The candidates will run in a runoff on June 15 th MAJOR ISSUE: Santos supports peace talks with FARC AND Zuluaga does not