3Cultural influence: A) Cultural and societal influence: Throughout his existence, an individual will be influenced by his family, his friends, his cultural environment or society that will “teach” him values, preferences as well as common behaviours to their own culture.Culture:Basic values, perceptions, wants and behaviorsLearned from family and important institutions
4Cultural values: widely held beliefs that endure over time. Instrumental valuesTerminal values
5Features Culture is a learned response Culture is shared Culture is adaptiveDynamism in culture
7B) SubcultureSubcultures are groups of people who share the same values based on a common experience or a similar lifestyle in general.Subcultures are the nationalities, religions, ethnic groups, age groups, gender of the individual, etc..Group of people with shared value systemsBased on common life experiences and situations
8Marketing to Subcultures Procter & Gamble targets Hispanics using print and TV and has developed special Spanish versions of some brands.
9Geographic subculture Religion subculture Gender subculture Age subcultureGeneration Y ( )Generation X ( )Baby boomers ( )seniorsGeographic subcultureReligion subcultureGender subculture
10Age subculture Themes Generation Y Generation X Boomers Purchasing behaviourSavvy, PragmaticMaterialisticNarcissisticComing of age technologyComputer in every homeMICROWAVE in every homeTV in every homePrice quality attitudeValue orientedPrice orientedConspicuous consumptionAttitude towards brandsBrand embracingAgainst brandingBrand loyalBehaviour towards adsRebel against hypeRespond to image building type
11Gender subculture:Women show superior affect and purchase intention towards ads that are verbal, harmonious, complex and catagory oriented whereas men show superior affect and purchase intention towards ads that are comparative, simple and attribute oriented.
13Social comparison theory C) Social Class:Social classes are defined as groups more or less homogenous and ranked against each other according to a form of social hierarchy. Even if it’s very large groups, we usually find similar values, lifestyles, interests and behaviours in individuals belonging to the same social class.Social comparison theoryWe often assume three general categories among social classes:Lower classMiddle classUpper class
14Measuring social class 1. Subjective measuresReputational measuresObjective measures:Single variable indexesComposite variable indexes
15D) Cultural trends:Cultural trends or “Bandwagon effect” are defined as trends widely followed by people and which are amplified by their mere popularity and by conformity or compliance with social pressure. The more people follow a trend, the more others will want to follow it.For example, Facebook has become a cultural trend. The social network has widely grew to the point of becoming a must have, especially among young people.
16Culture and marketing strategies Identify key cultural values that affect the consumption of the productEnsure the marketing mix appeals to these valuesExamine changes in cultural values and adapt the marketing mix if neededModify marketing mix to subcultures if the culture is heterogeneousBe aware of symbols and ritual
17Measurement of culture Content analysisConsumer fieldworkValue measurement instrument
18Content AnalysisA method for systematically analyzing the content of verbal and/or pictorial communication.Frequently used to determine prevailing social values of a society.
19Field ObservationA measurement technique that takes place within a natural environment that focuses on observing behaviour (sometimes without the subjects’ awareness).
20Field Observation Takes place within a natural environment Performed sometimes without the subject’s awarenessFocuses on observation of behaviour
21Participant-Observers Researchers who participate in the environment that they are studying without notifying those who are being observed
22Value Measurement Survey Instruments Rokeach Value Survey (RVS)A self-administered inventory consisting of eighteen “terminal” values (i.e., personal goals) and eighteen “instrumental” values (i.e., ways of reaching personal goals).List of Values (LOV)A value measurement instrument that asks consumers to identify their two most important values from a nine-value list that is based on the terminal values of the Rokeach Value Survey
30Values Values: Value system Cultural values directly influence how Shared beliefs or cultural norms about what is important or right.Value systemOur total set of values and their relative importanceCultural values directly influence howConsumers view and use individualproducts, brands, and services.
31Values The List of Values (LOV): • Warm relationships • Self-respect• Warm relationships• Self-fulfillment• Sense of belonging• Respect from others• Excitement• Security• Sense of accomplishment• Fun and enjoyment in life
32Values Identifies eight market segments that share similar end values. Values and Lifestyles (VALS):Identifies eight market segments that share similar end values.
33Social Factors: Reference group and membership group: The membership groups of an individual are social groups to which he belongs and which will influence him. The membership groups are usually related to its social origin, age, place of residence, work, hobbies, leisure, etc.More generally, reference groups are defined as those that provide to the individual some points of comparison more or less direct about his behaviour, lifestyle, desires or consumer habits. They influence the image that the individual has of himself as well as his behaviour. Whether it is a membership group or a non-membership group.
34Reference group:Normative reference group that influence general or broadly defined values or behaviour.Comparative reference group that serve as a benchmark for specific or narrowly defined attitude or behaviour.Indirect reference groupDirect reference group
36Opinion LeadersTrendsetters – individuals who are more likely to purchase new products early and to serve as information source for others in a group.
37Factors that affect reference group’s influence: Information and experienceCredibility, attractiveness and power of the reference groupConspicuousness of the product.Reference group and consumer conformityMarket leaders are interested in encouraging conformity.Non market leaders re new brands appeal for non conformity
38In common marketing usage 5 major reference group are: Celebrity AppealTypesDefinitionTestimonialBased on personal usage, a celebrity attests to the quality of the product or serviceEndorsementCelebrity lends his/her name and appeal on behalf of product or service with which he/she may or may not be an expert.SpokespersonCelebrity represents the brand or company over an extended period of time.
39The common man (slice of life commercials) The expertThe common man (slice of life commercials)The executive and employee spokespersonTrade or spokes-characterOther reference appealsSeals of approvalConsumer reports
40Many brands look to target opinion leaders (initiator or influencer) to spread the use and purchase of their product in a social group. Either through an internal person of the group when it comes to a small social group. Or through a sponsorship or a partnership with a reference leader (celebrity, actor, musician, athlete, etc.) for larger groups.
44Eight roles in the family Decision-Making Process: Influencers: provide information to other membersGatekeepers: control the flow of informationDeciders: have power to determine unilaterally or jointly whether to buy or notBuyers: make actual purchasesPreparers: transform products into form suitable for consumptionUsers: use the product or serviceMaintainers: service or repair the product for continued satisfactionDisposers: carry out disposal or discontinuation of the product.