Presentation on theme: "An Emerging World Power 1890-1917 Chapter 18 How did the United States become a global power?"— Presentation transcript:
An Emerging World Power Chapter 18 How did the United States become a global power?
Standards Standard - SSUSH14 Description: The student will explain America's evolving relationship with the world at the turn of the twentieth century. a. Explain the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 and anti-Asian immigration sentiment on the west coast. b. Describe the Spanish-American War, the war in the Philippines, and the debate over American expansionism. c. Explain U.S. involvement in Latin America, as reflected by the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine and the creation of the Panama Canal.
The Roots of Imperialism The Roots of Imperialism Section 1 “How and why did the United States take a more active role in world affairs?” Vocabulary: imperialismFrederick J. Turner extractive economyMatthew Perry Alfred T. MahanSocial Darwinism Queen Liliuokalani
The Roots of Imperialism The Causes of Imperialism Main Idea: The United States became one of many nations interested in expanding control around the world in order to increase their wealth. America’s First Steps Toward World Power Main Idea: America developed trade with the previously closed-off Japan, purchased Alaska, and established trade, highways, and other investments in Latin America. The United States Acquires Hawaii Main Idea: After long-term debate between American planters and Hawaiian natives, Hawaii became a U.S. territory in 1898.
Imperialism Policy by a stronger nation to extend their political, military, and economic control over weaker territories Extracted economies: removed raw materials from the colony and shipped them to the home country
Pressures for Expansion 1. Overproduction of food and goods; business and farmers needed new markets 3. To spread democracy 4. To spread Christianity 5. Social Darwinism *What factors influenced Americans to play a more active role in the world? Americans had surplus goods and wanted to find other markets for them. Imperialists embraced Social Darwinism and believed in America’s Manifest Destiny.
Reasons for Imperialism Economic factors overproduction1. Economic factors: countries needed natural resources such as rubber and petroleum and new markets for manufactured goods due to overproduction Nationalist factors2. Nationalist factors: competition among nations for empires resulted from nationalism Military factors3. Military factors: advances in technology and the need for military bases for fuel and supplies Humanitarian factors4. Humanitarian factors: spread Western civilization, including law, medicine, and Christian religion
United States Navy Alfred T. Mahan asserted in The Influence of Sea Power Upon History that the U. S. needed a modern fleet and foreign bases By 1900, U.S. had the third largest navy
U. S. Navy
Security: Naval Power Naval Act 1890: construct battleships, gunboats, torpedo boats, and cruisers Great White Fleet – one of the most powerful navies in the world
Fredrick J. Turner Argued that the frontier was closed due to settlement of the West Believed U.S. needed overseas expansion as a “safety valve” to avoid internal conflict
Time Line 1796: Washington said, “ steer clear of permanent alliances” 1853: Commodore Matthew C. Perry opened Japan to trade 1866: 50,000 American soldiers sent to Mexico to stop French from placing an emperor on the throne 1867: Seward bought Alaska from Russia 1867: Annexed Midway Islands *Why did journalists criticize Seward for his purchase of Alaska? They criticized him because of the distance between Alaska and the U.S. and because they thought the area lacked natural resources.
Matthew C. Perry in Japan 1853
U. S. Foreign Affairs Began trade with China in 1860s Treaty with Hawaii 1870s to sell sugar to the U.S. duty-free 1913 Minor C. Keith of United Fruit Company dominated the governments of Costa Rica, Guatemala, and Honduras; known as “banana republics” Growth of U.S. Navy: Alfred T. Mahan wrote The Influence of Sea Power Upon History ; stated that economy needed markets abroad; by 1900 the U.S. had a powerful navy
U.S. Involvement in Latin America Chile: forced Chile to pay money to families of slain U.S. sailors Brazil: navy put down rebellion to protect U.S. business interests In a dispute between Britain and Venezuela, the U.S. forced them to go to arbitration to settle the dispute over territory between Venezuela and British Guiana
Pacific Hawaii: leased Pearl Harbor -Queen Liliuokalani: Dole removed her in Annexed in 1898 Samoa: Divided islands with Germany; got Pago Pago *How did American planters react to Queen Liliuokalani’s actions when she gained power? American planters overthrew the queen when her actions threatened to limit their powers and affect their profits.
United States and Imperialism Promote economic growth: expand markets for sale of overproduction of goods Protect American security; Large Navy and need for Pacific bases Preserve American spirit; social Darwinism
Reading Skill: Identify Main Ideas NOTE TAKING
Causes of Imperialism Quick Study: Causes of Imperialism QUICK STUDY
American Imperialism Transparency: American Imperialism TRANSPARENCY
The Spanish-American War The Spanish-American War Section 2 “What were the causes and effects of the Spanish-American War?” Vocabulary: José MartíGeorge Dewey Emilio AguinaldoRough Riders Yellow PressTreaty of Paris William Randolph Hearst jingoism
The Spanish-American War Sec 2: The Spanish-American War Causes of the War Main Idea: When Cuba rebelled against Spanish rulers, the United States sympathized with Cuba. The press heightened the desire for war, and when the U.S. battleship the Maine exploded in Havana harbor, America declared war on Spain. American Troops Battle the Spanish Main Idea: American troops were successful in battling the Spanish in Cuba and other Spanish territories, including Puerto Rico and the Philippines. Effects of the War Main Idea: When the war ended, the United States took over land previously controlled by Spain. This caused debate among Americans, but ultimately gave the U.S. new stature in world affairs. Continued…
Key Words Spheres of Influence: areas of economic and political control in China Open Door Policy: American approach to China, favoring open trade relations between China and others Arbitration: settlement of a dispute by a person chosen to listen to both sides and come to a decision Jingoism: intense burst of national pride and desire for an aggressive foreign policy
Cuban Rebellion 1895 Cuba rebelled against Spain José Marti led rebels 150,000 troops under General Valeriano Weyler, “The Butcher” sent to stop Concentration Camps
U. S. Position Cuban rebels attacked sugar plantations to get U.S. help American newspapers used “yellow journalism” to get U. S. support for Cuba *Why did Americans object to Spanish actions in Cuba? Brutal treatment of Cubans by the Spanish
William Randolph Hearst Publications (The New York Journal)called Yellow Press because they featured a character called The Yellow Kid Used sensational headlines to sell papers Exaggerated Spanish atrocities
Joseph Pulitzer New York World competed with Hearst’s newspapers by exaggerating stories about Cuba Pulitzer Prize is named for him
New York Journal Sales Chart: New York Journal Sales CHART
De Lôme Letter Letter written by ambassador to Washington, Dupuy de Lôme, describing President McKinley as “weak and a bidder for the admiration of the crowd” U. S. citizens were angry
U.S.S. Maine U.S. battleship U.S.S. Maine and sank in Havana Harbor Americans believed that Spain had blown up the ship (Ships boiler blew up) Pressure to declare war
Causes of War 1. Explosion of the U.S.S. Maine “Remember the Maine 2. Yellow journalism 3. The de Lôma Letter 4. Sympathy for the Cubans Why did Americans object to Spanish actions in Cuba? Americans believed that Spain had treated Cuban rebels brutally and that Spain had destroyed the Maine
Battles Admiral George Dewey attacked the Spanish Pacific Fleet in Manila Bay, Philippines Spanish fleet sunk U.S. controlled the area
Emilio Aguinaldo Filipino leader who helped the U.S. contain Spanish troops, hoping for independence U.S. did not grant independence until 1946
Battle in Cuba Navy attacked the Spanish Atlantic Fleet in Santiago, Cuba, sinking the ships Land war: Rough Riders, under Theodore Roosevelt charged up San Juan Hill “A splendid little war”
Charge of the Rough Riders at San Juan Hill Transparency: Charge of the Rough Riders at San Juan Hill TRANSPARENCY
Causes of American Deaths in the Spanish-American War Chart: Causes of American Deaths in the Spanish-American War CHART
Reading Skill: Identify Causes and Effects Note Taking: Reading Skill: Identify Causes and Effects NOTE TAKING
Question *How did the Rough Riders and African American cavalry units contribute to the war effort? Both fought in battles that secured the surrender of Santiago, Cuba.
Treaty of Paris 1898 Cuba gains independence U.S. gains Philippines, Puerto Rico, and Guam U.S. paid Spain $20 million *Why did American leaders think it was important to keep the Philippines? Believed that a presence in the Philippines would be valuable in increasing U.S. trade with China
Results of War Fought Aguinaldo for three years Teller Amendment promised that the U.S. would not annex Cuba Constitution of Cuba 1900
Imperialism’s Appeal Many Americans felt that imperialism offered a New Frontier abroad. Many supported the effort to gain foreign markets for U.S. products The U.S. became a powerful player on the world stage Roosevelt sent part of the Navy on a cruise around the world to demonstrate the Great White Fleet.
Anti-Imperialists Moral and political arguments: nation was founded on “liberty for all” Racial arguments: some Americans believed that people Anglo-Saxon heritage were superior Economic arguments: some felt that expansion cost too much in maintaining necessary armed forces or that people from annexed territories would take jobs
William McKinley 1900 McKinley defeats Bryan U.S. has an empire and new stature in world affairs Reelected in 1900 Assassinated in 1901 Vice President Theodore Roosevelt becomes president Why did American leaders think it was important to keep the Philippines? Some leaders believed that a presence in the Philippines would be valuable in increasing U.S. trade with China.
The United States and East Asia The United States and East Asia Section 3 “How did the United States extend its influence in Asia?” Vocabulary: insurrectionOpen Door Policy guerrilla warfareJohn Hay Russo-Japanese WarBoxer Rebellion William Howard TaftGreat White Fleet ”Gentlemen’s Agreement” sphere of influence
The United States and East Asia Filipinos Rebel Against U.S. Rule Main Idea: Filipinos were angry that the United States did not grant them independence after the Spanish-American War and rebelled. The Americans fought the rebels, but eventually the Philippines became independent. The United States Pursues an Interest in China Main Idea: The United States tried to establish a system of fair trade in China, so that they could have as much access to goods as European powers. Tensions Rise Between America and Japan Main Idea: Asian prejudice in America and resentment of western interference in Japan led to growing conflict between the two regions in the early 1900s.
Key Words Concession: grant for a piece of land in exchange for a promise to use the land for a specific purpose Dollar diplomacy: encourage investment abroad
Key Words Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine: extension of a previously accepted idea 1. Not use the Monroe Doctrine for territorial aggression 2. U.S. intervene to prevent intervention from other powers Racism: belief that differences in character or intelligence are due to one’s race
Filipinos Rebel Emilio Aguinaldo used guerilla warfare to try to win independence from the U.S. After his capture in 190a, the insurrection ended, taking the lives of 5,000 Americans and 200,00 Filipinos Why did hostilities erupt in the Philippines after the Spanish- American War? The U.S. took possession of the Philippines, and Filipinos wanted their independence.
War and Peace in the Philippines Infographic: War and Peace in the Philippines INFOGRAPHIC
China Vast market Sphere of Influence John Hay developed “Open Door Policy” – America wanted free trade in China “Boxer” Rebellion 1900 rebellion against foreigners; Righteous and Harmonious Fists ; European powers forced China to pay for damage How did the U.S. protect its commercial interests in China? The U.S. protected its interests with the Open Door Policy, asserting its right to trade on the same footing as European countries.
Transparency: The Boxer Rebellion The Boxer Rebellion TRANSPARENCY
Russo-Japanese War In 1905, Roosevelt mediated the conflict. He received the Nobel Peace Prize for his role as mediator. Japan received land and control over Korea; Russia left Manchuria; China remained open to all for trade.
Gentlemen’s Agreement 1906 San Francisco banned Asian children from attending schools with whites TR convinced the city to back down, and Japan limited emigration to the U.S. Caused hostility
Great White Fleet Roosevelt promoted military preparedness to protect American interests in Asia 1907 sent 16 battleships on a “good will cruise” around the world What were some of the difficulties America faced in maintaining good relations with Japan? American prejudice in CA schools was an impediment to good relations with Japan.
The United States and Latin America The United States and Latin America Section 4 “What actions did the United States take to achieve its goals in Latin America?” Vocabulary: Foraker ActPanama Canal Roosevelt CorollaryPlatt Amendment ”big stick” diplomacy“dollar diplomacy” ”moral diplomacy” Francisco “Pancho” Villa
The United States and Latin America U.S. Policy in Puerto Rico and Cuba Main Idea: After the Spanish-American War, Puerto Rico remained under direct U.S. rule and Puerto Ricans were given some citizenship rights. The United States also continued to have influence in Cuban government. Roosevelt Pursues “Big Stick” Diplomacy Main Idea: Theodore Roosevelt thought it was important to take a strong stand in international affairs, and wanted the United States to act as “police” for all of Latin America. Wilson Pursues Moral Diplomacy Main Idea: When Wilson was elected President, he criticized the imperialist actions of his predecessors. However, under his term the United States continued to intervene in Mexico and Latin American affairs. Continued…
Platt Amendment - Cuba Cuban government could not enter foreign agreements Had to give the U.S. two bases (Guantanamo Bay) U.S. had right to intervene Why did Cubans dislike the Platt Amendment? The Platt Amendment brought Cuba under U.S. control, restricted Cubans’ rights, and allowed the U.S. to intervene in Cuban affairs.
Puerto Rico No independence People given citizenship in 1917 Recently voted on statehood
Theodore Roosevelt’s Foreign Policy U.S. a world power Intervenes in the affairs of countries that were of economic and strategic interest Spanish-American War shows the need for a shorter route between the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans
Foreign Policy “Speak softly and carry a big stick; you will go far.” This quote by TR alluded to the threat of military force to conduct an aggressive foreign policy. Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine” the U.S. government would intervene to prevent intervention from other powers. Santo Domingo: U.S. took over finances and paid European debt U.S. continued to intervene in Latin America
The Panama Canal
Panama Canal Isthmus of Panama: belonged to Columbia Ferdinand de Lesseps bought a concession in 1879 to build a canal. After 10 years, the company abandoned the project. Congress passed the Spooner Act in 1902, authorizing the purchase of the French assets for $40 million. Colombia would not negotiate with the U.S.
Lease Roosevelt indicated that the U.S. would not interfere if the French company organized a Panamanian revolt against Colombia. In November, 1903 a revolt broke out with U.S. warships offshore to provide support for the rebels. The U.S. recognized Panama as an independent country and ratified the Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty in The treaty gave the U.S. a grant of a 10-mile-wide strip for a Canal Zone for $10 million.
Construction Construction, which began in 1904, was finished in 1914 William C. Gorgas virtually eliminated malaria and yellow fever. Roosevelt’s tactics used to acquire the Panama Canal caused ill-will among Latin Americans toward the U.S. In 1921, Congress paid Colombia $25 million in recognition of the illegal means used to acquire the Canal Zone
William Howard Taft Elected in 1908 Foreign policy goals were to maintain the open door in Asia and preserve stability in Latin America “Dollar diplomacy” substituted dollars for bullets, although the results were not always profitable.
Question What were Roosevelt’s most important foreign-policy initiatives in Latin America? Roosevelt’s initiatives in Latin America were his Corollary, which claimed the U.S. right to intervene in the affairs of Latin America, and his “big stick” diplomacy, which emphasized a strong U.S. military.
Wilson’s Moral Diplomacy Stated that he would not use imperialism, but would promote “human rights, national integrity, and opportunity” Used military power in Latin America and Haiti What was “moral diplomacy”? “Moral diplomacy” was a policy that stressed respecting the rights of other nations to govern and not using force to impose U.S. policies on other sovereign governments.