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Chapter 21: Revolutionary Changes in the Atlantic World, 1750-1850.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 21: Revolutionary Changes in the Atlantic World, 1750-1850."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 21: Revolutionary Changes in the Atlantic World,

2 Colonial Wars & Fiscal Crises  The Cost of War  Cost of maintaining defense of colonies = expensive  War debts strap European powers The Enlightenment and the old order  Enlightenment – scientific revolution meets politics & religion  Intellectual Challenge to Old Order – hereditary rulers & the church

3  Hobbes – Social contract, we surrender certain rights to government in exchange for order  Locke – Government duty to protect life/liberty/property, otherwise rebel  Rousseau – Governments operate with the consent of the governed; will of the majority  Montesquieu – 3 branches of govt, checks/balances  Voltaire – freedom of speech/religion, critic of “optimism”; “I do not agree with a word you say... “  Wollstonecraft – rights of women, “On the Vindication..”  Monarchs and the Enlightenment – enlightened despots – benevolent dictators

4 Prelude to Revolution: The 18 th Century Crisis Prelude to Revolution: The 18 th Century Crisis… continued  The Community of Belief Systems  Many channels of communication open – pamphlets, salons, correspondence  Expanding middle class – high literacy rate – coffee & tea houses  Enlightenment and the New World  America = unrestrained by Europe’s corruption would thrive  Benjamin Franklin – writer, inventor, representative, ambassador  The Counter Enlightenment – driven by Catholic nations  Reform and Popular Culture  Tax reforms met with riots and protests – prefer status quo  Meet with popular uprisings

5 The America Revolution, Frontiers & Taxes  British Frontier Policy  Westward push seen as future cost of conflict  Ottawa chief Pontiac fought British over policies  Proclamation of 1763 – est. western limits  New Colonial Tax & Commercial Policies – Americans enjoyed foreign trade  Colonial Protests  Stamp Act of 1765 – every document was taxed  Women from prominent colonial families organized boycotts  Reaction to boycotts threatens liberties  Boston Massacre – fueled popular support for independence  East India Co monopoly on tea – met with Tea Party, and martial law

6 The America Revolution, The America Revolution, … continued The Course of Revolution,  Continental Congress  Created a currency, declared independence, and organized an army  George Washington – Virginia planter & veteran of French Indian war  Joseph Brant – Mohawk chief on side of British  British defeat at Saratoga – Mohawk go to Canada, French join American side  Yorktown courtesy of French support  Treaty of Paris – unconditional independence  “Common Sense” – Thomas Paine – made argument for independence The Construction of Republican Political Structures, to 1800  Europeans lived vicariously through U.S. – constitutions published in Europe  2 nd Continental Congress = Articles of Confederation  One House legislature  No executive branch  Creating a new Government: Constitutional Convention – 3 branches  Limits of Democracy – still slavery and limited women’s rights

7 The French Revolution, French Society and Fiscal Crisis  Estates General – each has one vote  1 st Estate – Church (1 % of pop)  2 nd Estate – Nobles (1-2 % of pop)  3 rd Estate – 97-98% of Population  1780 onward – series of poor harvests(Potato had NOT caught on)  The Poor – 80+ % of population – increase in price of bread =

8  The Politics of Debts and Taxes – Louis XVI (& Marie Antoinette) inherit debt but support US; Protest turns to Revolution ( )  3 rd Estate Acts  Tennis Court Oath – becomes National Assembly  33% unemployed and hungry The Bastille Falls  Fear leads to Bastille and heads on pikes  Great Fear spreads throughout France – not a good time to be rich  Emigres (mainly nobles who emigrate to other countries)

9 The French Revolution, The French Revolution, … continued  Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen – similar to US Constitution  The Women of Paris Act – march to Versailles, bring back royals  Revolutionary Changes Begin – Church’s land seized, neighbors worried, religion outlawed The Reign of Terror,  The Jacobins and Girondists (Radicals and moderates)  Jacobins take the lead – Guillotine, Terror, Execution of Louis XVI  Maximilien Robespierre – virtual dictator  September Massacres – one way to clean out the prison population  Guillotine – democratic & used on Louis XVI +40,000  Women & the Revolution – women’s sacrifices go unrewarded  NO ONE is safe from the Guillotine – not even Robespierre

10 Rise of Napoleon  Napoleonic Code: Equality for ALL (in the eyes of the law)  Concordat with Church – churches; Catholic religion restored, churches reopened, ppl can “go to heaven again” – woo hoo!  Lycees – public schools for  Declares himself emperor 1804 – widely popular w/ppl  Napoleon restores stability and security to France, military powerhouse, great deal of nationalism - making him widely popular with the ppl – rockstar, pro athlete, hollywood star all in one times 100! “Cult of Personality”

11  Undefeated in Europe 1796 – 1812  Impact on Napoleon’s perception?  Continental System – unified economic Europe – targeting Britain; attempts to starve them into submission  Iberian war – Napoleon never personally commanded French troops; therefore did NOT understand the threat Wellington would represent  King of Portugal to Brazil (many creoles, including San Martin and Bolivar will fight in Napoleonic Wars)  Russian Scorched Earth policy; Napoleon refuses to quit  Defeated at Leipzig (Battle of Nations) - exiled to Elba  Returns to France – defeated at Waterloo (Wellington); exiled to St. Helena (dies 1821)

12 The Haitian Revolution, – while the cat’s away…  Accounted for 66% of French tropical imports and 33% of French Foreign trade  The Haitian Revolution - colonial government weakened  Rebelling slaves killed & destroyed plantations  Toussaint L’Ouverture takes military leadership; defeats British expeditionary force and next door Spanish  Napoleon sent forces, Toussaint ends up in Prison, eventually Haiti win indepedence  Yellow Fever and tenacity of rebels defeat French troops  Napoleon decides to end dream of N. American Empire; sells Louisiana Purchase to US (What if )

13 Congress of Vienna & Conservative Retrenchment,  Balance of Power, restore monarchy to all of Europe  The Holy Alliance – Austria/Russia/Prussia  People have tasted democratic rights, will not give them up w/o a fight Nationalism, Reform, and Revolution,  Greek Independence – from Ottomans – w/help of Brits and French  Revolutionary Fears in France and Britain  The Revolutions of 1848 – Paris/Vienna/Rome/Berlin looking for reform & self determination


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