Presentation on theme: "Expansion, Should We or Shouldn’t We ? As our economy was struggling, one answer to improve it became obvious, Foreign Trade. But with foreign trade comes."— Presentation transcript:
Expansion, Should We or Shouldn’t We ? As our economy was struggling, one answer to improve it became obvious, Foreign Trade. But with foreign trade comes foreign involvement. The new debate in the U.S. is over the issue of Imperialism, which happens when stronger nations expand their control & boundaries at the expense of smaller, weaker countries.
Why did the Imperialist Movement Grow in U.S. 1) Economy-The growth of industry in Europe & Asia created a huge need for natural resources like oil, gas, rubber, which we had. 2) Nationalism-A devotion to or pride in your country. 3) Military-The rapid growth of armies & navies created a bigger need for fueling stations, coal, gas. 4) Humanitarian- An obligation to help underprivileged countries.
The U.S. Had Already Expanded Alaska, 1866. Sec. of State, William Seward was sent to purchase Alaska from? For $7,200,000. It was commonly referred to as Seward’s Folly. Why?
Pearl Harbor & Midway Island Because of increased trade with China & Japan, we needed fueling stations in the Pacific. So, in 1867 we annexed the uninhabited island called Midway Island. Also in 1867, we negotiated a trade agreement with Hawaii for sugar that led to the use of Pearl Harbor for fuel.
International U.S. Companies Ex: Standard Oil, A.T.&T., McKormick International Harvester, Singer Sewing Machines, Sherwin- Williams Paints, have all gone international forcing our gov. to protect them.
Banana Republic Minor Keith started Keith’s Fruit Co. in several Central American Countries, thus this area became known as the Banana Republics.
U.S. Navy Buildup Our navy still consisted of some ships from the Civil War. Alfred Mahan wrote a book called The Influence of Sea Power Upon History in 1890, that showed that every great power in history had a great navy. By 1900, we had one of the best navies in the world
Foreign Expansion By 1890s, we were targeting 3 specific areas for expansion. 1- Latin America, 2- Pacific Islands, 3- China
4 Incidences That Bought U.S Into Latin America In Chile, 1891, American soldiers were on shore leave there when they were attacked by a mob, killing 2 Americans. US. Gov. forced Chile to pay each family $75,000. In 1895, in Brazil, a trading ally of ours, a rebellion started. Grover Cleveland sent a fleet of ships off the coast of Brazil in plain view to intimidate. It worked, & the rebellion ended.
Latin America In 1895, Venezuela & England were on the verge of war over some land in Venezuela. Because Eng. Was afraid to loose our trade, they agreed to let the U.S. act as an arbitrator to settle the problem. Def. of arbitrator: both parties in a disagreement agree to the decision made by an unbiased third party
Latin America 1895, in Cuba, the Cuban people were rebelling against Spanish control. Spain responded by sending in the ruthless commander, Gen. Valeriano Weyler.
Spanish-American War To prevent more involvement Weyler began placing thousands of men, women, children into concentration camps that eventually caused more than 200,000 deaths. Should We Get Involved?? In 1895, 96’, Cleveland said no. In 1897, McKinley said no. Both feared that we weren’t ready.
What Forced the U.S. Into War? 1) Cubans, under the direction of the leader of the rebellion, Jose’ Marti, began destroying U.S. sugar plantations and mills hoping that we would blame this on Spanish soldiers.
Spanish-American War 2) 2 N.Y. newspapers, the N.Y. World & the N.Y. Journal began printing exaggerated stories about the war with horrific pictures. They nicknamed Weyler “The Butcher”. This was one of the early examples of Yellow Journalism.
Cuba, continued 3) Jan. 1898, McKinley sent the USS Maine into Havana Harbor to have a strong U. S. presence there. Feb.- The Maine suddenly explodes, killing 266 Americans on board. Who did it?
Cuba 4) Feb. 1898, a letter was published by a US paper that was written by the Spanish Ambassador in Washington, Dupuy de Lome, calling McKinley a weak president and just a puppet of the people.
Cuba Result: McKinley sends a list of demands to Spain. 1-$ compensation for the Maine. 2-Put an end to concentration camps. 3-Peace in Cuba. 4-Cuba’s independence.
Philippines As all this is happening in Cuba, the people of the Philippines also rebel against Spanish rule. Admiral George Dewey was sent with a fleet of ships & ordered to attack there if war started with Spain in Cuba.
War with Spain April 11, 1898, congress authorized the use of force against Spain and the battle cry became “Remember the Maine”. But in a surprise, we first attacked Spain in the Philippines at Manila Bay on May 1. After 7 hours, and sinking all 10 Spanish ships there, it was over. We then turned our attention to Cuba.
The War in Cuba RRough Riders: The most famous cavalry unit in this war. Commanded by Theodore Roosevelt, who resigned his position as Assistant Sec. of the Navy to reenlist into the army. HHe personally recruited and trained a wide range of people that made up his unit. JJuly 1, 1898, the Rough Riders won the biggest land victory in the war, the Battle of San Juan Hill BBut the unit that should have gotten the most credit was the 10 th Negro Cavalry Unit.
End To War By July 3 rd, the Spanish had made one last attempt to escape. But were destroyed by U.S. ships, thus ending the war after only 4 months Results: 5,400 U.S. soldiers died, just under 400 died in battle. How did they die? Food poisoning, disease, poor medical treatment. End result, we weren’t ready to fight a war yet.
Treaty of Paris, Dec. 1898 1)Spain had to give Cuba its independence. 2)Spain had to cede Guam, the Philippines, and Puerto Rico to the U.S. for $20 million.
Problems in the Philippines Filipino people thought they had earned their independence just as Cuba had. Now they just started fighting us under the leadership of rebel Emilio Aguinaldo. The ensuing 3 year brutal war killed 4,000 Americans and 20,000 Filipino rebels, but also killed twice as many Filipino citizens.
Back to Cuba Senate would not agree to war in Cuba until McKinley signed the Teller Amendment, which stated that we would agree to give Cuba its independence after the war. We almost did. When Cuba wrote its Constitution in 1900, they had to put the Platt Amendment in it.
Platt Amendment 1) Cuba can not enter into any foreign agreements without our consent. 2) The U.S. can build 2 navy bases on Cuban territory. 3) The U.S. had the right to intervene in any situation we thought necessary in Cuba.
Hawaii 1887, U.S. had a great relationship with Hawaii & its king, Kalakaua. We had leasing rights to Pearl Harbor & a trade agreement that allowed tax free trade for their sugar. WHY? Because Americans owned the largest sugar plantations in Hawaii and all previous sugar purchases came from the Caribbean Islands
Hawaii But, the king died in 1892 & was followed by his sister, Queen Liliuokalani. She was very anti- American. The leading U.S. farmer was Sanford B. Dole, the pineapple farmer, who feared for his life and asked us for protection. Cleveland sent in Marines, forcing the queen from power. Senate voted for annexation of Hawaii in 1898.
Rebellion in China, 1900 China’s huge population made them a great trade target, but their weak central gov. just made them a target. England, France, Japan, Germany, Russia, and the U.S. were competing for economic & political control of China. Sec. of State, John Hay, organized a proposal called the Open Door Policy.
Open Door Policy Def.- China would be “open” for trade to any country who would trade fairly with them and not try to take any land from them.
Boxer Rebellion Since China was not confided on this, they rebelled in the Spring of 1900. Thousands of young Chinese men organized a secret society called Boxers. In China they were known as the “Righteous, Harmonious Fist”. Over 300 foreigners were killed.
Boxer Rebellion The U.S. organized an international army which violently put down the rebellion, killing thousands of Chinese. This eventually restored a “fair” open door policy in China.
McKinley Assassinated Thanks mostly to these foreign policy successes McKinley easily won reelection in 1900. But his assassination by anarchist Leon Czolgosz, left VP Teddy Roosevelt, at 42, as the youngest president ever. Roosevelt’s first foreign policy issue involves the making of the Panama Canal.
Panama Canal 1879, France had a 25 year contract with Colombia to build the canal. Why Colombia? After 10 years, hundreds had died from accidents and disease, and the expense was too much. France offered to sell the remaining 15 years to the U.S. for $100 Million. After B. Harrison said no, they reduced it to $40 million. He again said no and countered with a $10 million offer. – They said no.
Colombia was hoping the original contract would run out so they could negotiate a new one in 1904. Roosevelt wanted to deal with Panama so he secretly encouraged them to rebel against Colombia for their independence, which they did on Nov. 3, 1903. We signed the Hay-Bunau- Varilla Treaty on Nov. 21, 1903. We were sold the Canal Zone, a 40 mile by 10 mile strip of land for $10 million.
Panama Canal Construction took 10 years, 6 months ahead of schedule, and $25 million less than the budgeted $400 million. 6,000 workers died during construction. After Roosevelt’s death in 1919, Congress voted to pay Panama another $25 million. Roosevelt also became the 1 st president to leave U.S. soil while he was president, which he did to visit the construction site.
Teddy Roosevelt, 1901 Most famous quote was that we should “speak softly, but carry a big stick”. The big stick was the U.S. Navy. This theory represented his foreign policy which was called Gunboat Diplomacy, which he already used in Panama & Cuba. Most important document he issued was called the Roosevelt Corollary, which stated that we had “international police power” over the Western Hemisphere & that we were the dominant country is this part of the world.
Russo-Japanese War 1904, Russia & Japan were going to war over a land dispute. Roosevelt used his new power to convince both countries to send delegates to America, in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, where Roosevelt himself negotiated an agreement which helped avoid a war. Roosevelt was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.
Howard Taft, 1909 Served as Sec. of State under Roosevelt. His foreign policy was not based on military intimidation, but on economic pressure. That was why it was known as Dollar Diplomacy. This was done by investing millions of dollars into countries in trouble to try to strengthen them rather than come in with military force. One of 2 presidents buried at Arlington Cemetery.
Anti-Imperialist Despite the many examples of expansion. There were many prominent people who were still speaking out against it like: Mark Twain, William J. Bryan, and Jane Addams. They had main reasons for this 1)Moral: Taking on colonies was the complete opposite of the purpose of our country, Life, Liberty, & the pursuit of Happiness. 2) Domestic : We should be concentrating on the problems in our own country, poverty, unemployment, etc. 3) Racist: They argued that we expanded just to expand the dominance of the white race.
Anti-Imperialists 4) Political: Southern Democrats were against it because most of the immigrants would come in to the north, thus giving them more Republicans 5) Economic: It was way too expensive to maintain a military big enough to protect our overseas possessions.
Just Showing Off To show off our new navy, Roosevelt sent a fleet of new ships on a trip around the world. He called it our Great White Fleet.