Presentation on theme: "Ch 18.3 New Nations in Africa AFTER WWII, AFRICAN LEADERS THREW OFF COLONIAL RULE AND CREATED INDEPENDENT COUNTRIES."— Presentation transcript:
Ch 18.3 New Nations in Africa AFTER WWII, AFRICAN LEADERS THREW OFF COLONIAL RULE AND CREATED INDEPENDENT COUNTRIES.
Negritude Movement A movement for African independence that started before World War II. French–speaking Africans and West Indians celebrated their heritage of traditional African culture and values.
Ghana [former British colony] 1957 Revolutionary Leader: Kwame Nkrumah Nkrumah’s Tactics: ◦Organized boycotts and strikes Reforms: ◦Expensive Health, education, & welfare programs ◦Dreamed of “United States of Africa” Problems he faced: ◦Overthrown by a coup in 1966 ◦Political & Economic Instability since then
President of Ghana President John Dramani MAHAMA
Kenya [Former British Colony] 1963 Tactics used by the Mau-Mau: ◦Frighten whites & forced them out of the northern highlands ◦Used guerilla tactics Kenyatta’s Reforms: ◦Tried to unite ethnic & language groups ◦Develop businesses Resulting Problems: ◦Civil Unrest under next leader, Daniel arap Moi
MZEE JOMO KENYATTA 1ST PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF KENYA
President Uhuru KENYATTA
Zaire, 1960 (Democratic Republic of Congo) Former colony of Belgium Gained independence by: Granted suddenly by Belgium Mobutu’s rule was: Brutal & Corrupt. Resulting problems: ◦Depleted resources ◦Extreme Poverty ◦Social Unrest; He was overthrown by Laurent Kabila in Kabila was assassinated in His son, Joseph Kabila, took power.
Mobutu Sese Seko
Laurent Kabila Joseph Kabila Current
Algeria [Former colony of France] 1962 Gained independence by: ◦FLN (Algerian Nat’l Liberation Front) fought against France for their independence. Ben Bella’s Program ◦Attempted to form a socialist state but was overthrown by a coup in 1965 Problems: ◦Unsuccessful attempts to industrialize ◦High Unemployment ◦Rise of Fundamentalist Islamists ◦Continuing civil unrest
Ahmed Ben Bella
Current President of Algeria Abdelaziz Bouteflika “Elected” in 2004 after all other candidates dropped out.
Angola [Former colony of Portugal] 1975 Gained independence by: Fought against Portugal Causes of their civil war: ◦Communist rebel group MPLA declared itself the rightful ruler of independent Angola. They were supported by Cuba & USSR ◦UNITA rebel group fought against MPLA with support from the USA Continuing problems: ◦Civil war continued until 2002.
José Eduardo dos Santos President of Angola since l979. His son is Vice President.