Presentation on theme: "Ch 18.3 New Nations in Africa"— Presentation transcript:
1Ch 18.3 New Nations in Africa After WWII, African leaders threw off colonial rule and created independent countries.
2Negritude MovementA movement for African independence that started before World War II. French–speaking Africans and West Indians celebrated their heritage of traditional African culture and values.Colonies with local governments had easier transitionsBorders that had little to do with where the ethnic groups lived caused conflict
3Ghana [former British colony] 1957 Revolutionary Leader: Kwame NkrumahNkrumah’s Tactics:Organized boycotts and strikesReforms:Expensive Health, education, & welfare programsDreamed of “United States of Africa”Problems he faced:Overthrown by a coup in 1966Political & Economic Instability since thenBritish colony of the Gold CoastFirst to achieve independenceNkrumah was criticized for spending too much time on Pan-African interests
6Kenya [Former British Colony] 1963 Tactics used by the Mau-Mau:Frighten whites & forced them out of the northern highlandsUsed guerilla tacticsKenyatta’s Reforms:Tried to unite ethnic & language groupsDevelop businessesResulting Problems:Civil Unrest under next leader, Daniel arap MoiBritish colonyMau-Mau was a secret society made up of mostly native Kenyan farmers forced out of the British highlandsKenyetta was imprisoned by the British for nearly a decade
7MZEE JOMO KENYATTA 1ST PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF KENYA
9Zaire, 1960 (Democratic Republic of Congo) Former colony of BelgiumGained independence by: Granted suddenly by BelgiumMobutu’s rule was: Brutal & Corrupt.Resulting problems:Depleted resourcesExtreme PovertySocial Unrest; He was overthrown by Laurent Kabila in Kabila was assassinated in His son, Joseph Kabila, took power.Belgian CongoMobutu ruled for 32 years2006 Joseph Kabila signed peace deals – violence again in the region
12Algeria [Former colony of France] 1962 Gained independence by:FLN (Algerian Nat’l Liberation Front) fought against France for their independence.Ben Bella’s ProgramAttempted to form a socialist state but was overthrown by a coup in 1965Problems:Unsuccessful attempts to industrializeHigh UnemploymentRise of Fundamentalist IslamistsContinuing civil unrest
14Current President of Algeria Abdelaziz Bouteflika “Elected” in after all other candidates dropped out.
15Angola [Former colony of Portugal] 1975 Gained independence by: Fought against PortugalCauses of their civil war:Communist rebel group MPLA declared itself the rightful ruler of independent Angola. They were supported by Cuba & USSRUNITA rebel group fought against MPLA with support from the USAContinuing problems:Civil war continued until 2002.Portuguese sent 50,000 troops to keep AngolaMPLA took over after the Portuguese withdrew, supported by 50,000 Cuban troops
16José Eduardo dos Santos President of Angola since l979.His son is Vice President.