Presentation on theme: "Bellringer Write a 1-3 paragraph narrative summary of the history of the Indian Ocean trade between 600 and 1750. –Consider: –groups involved, locations."— Presentation transcript:
Bellringer Write a 1-3 paragraph narrative summary of the history of the Indian Ocean trade between 600 and 1750. –Consider: –groups involved, locations traded to, merchant interactions, commodities traded, impacts and exchanges…
Tradition & Change China Ming Dynasty A History of World Societies by McKay Pg. 575-585
Ming Reign 1368-1644 –What can be deduced from the years of reign? Doesn’t fit periodization based on European history because… –China is the least affected by Europeans –Who preceded the Ming? –Who succeeded the Ming?
Ming Government Emperors = incompetent or erratic, despotic, ruthless –Used exam system & scholar bureaucrats but cautiously –Increased centralization Example: No chancellor Disadvantages?
Forbidden City New Capital at Beijing Wealth, Power, Prestige (ie centralization) of emperors
Ming Government Eunuchs: –Castrated male slaves Acquired in dubious fashion Compliant & subservient Increasingly filled key government roles
Ming Government Scholar-bureaucrats: –Prized status because of education & government service –Threatened by eunuchs & emperors Often favored weak emperors to allow bureaucracy to manage empire
Ming Military Not expansionist Used hereditary service obligations Garrisons in north & Great Wall to control Mongols –Seemingly self-sufficient Ultimately, weak relying on northern nomads for security
Ming Daily Life Centered on family –Marriage, Male heirs –Status = combination of wealth, education, family, & government office Merchants still looked down on –Attempted to marry scholar- bureaucrats for status
Ming Daily Life Urban life –Silver as currency Advantages? Disadvantages? –Expansion of cities & trade make economy strong –Printing finally yields results New educated middle class
Ming Daily Life Rural life –Reclaiming land –Terracing farms –Increased output = increased population
Ming Decline Dynastic cycle
Zheng He’s Expeditions How are his personal background, his purpose, & his interactions with scholars symbolic of the Ming?
Qing Dynasty 1644-1911
Qing Themes Northern nomadic Manchus used to suppress rebels & ascend to throne Expand China to new areas
Economic and Social Changes
How did this dynasty rise to power? Chinese took advantage of chaos of late Yuan rule to rebel against Mongols Rebel leader and founder of Ming Dynasty, Hong Wu, named his dynasty “brilliant”
How did this dynasty govern China? reintroduced Civil-Service Exam Emperors extremely powerful, often ruled as despots –Increased centralization –Reduced factionalism
How did dynasty affect daily life in China? Rebuilt bridges, canals, roads, temples, shrines, tax reform, Great Wall –Early attempts to help peasants –Late gentry dominance grows
What belief systems did this dynasty encourage? Discourage? Rebirth of adherence to Confucianism Many Chinese combined belief in Daoism, Confucianism, and Buddhism
Asian Sea Trading Network What did European bring & how did Asian societies react? Arab Zone Glass Rugs & tapestries Slaves Indian Zone Cotton Gems Pepper Chinese Zone Paper & porcelain Silk & spice European Arrival in Asia
Timeline c.1000-1540 = Feudal Japan –Emperors & Shoguns w/o authority –Daimyo w/ control –War common
In order to get power, one must attack those who have it.
Bringing Unity From feudal civil war, three military generals unified Japan 1.Nobunaga 2.Hideyoshi 3.Tokugawa Make use of European imports to strike at old authority –Use guns & surprise attacks to undermine rival daimyo –Use Christianity to undermine Buddhism
Timeline c.1000-1540 = Feudal Japan –Emperors & Shoguns w/o authority –Daimyo w/ control –War common 1540-1600 = Unification –Nobunaga, Hideyoshi, Tokugawa –Era of European influence
After Unification Unification by generals brought strict military government Emperor remained figurehead in Kyoto Daimyo remained regional lords …but…loyal to military dictator, Shogun Tokugawa Shogunate (Edo Period)
In order to keep power, one must prevent others from getting it
After Unification Most European influence removed –Christians persecuted –Guns banned
Selective Borrowing… Attempted to balance change & stability 1.Dutch exchange at Nagasaki Technology & science Manufactured good & techniques 2.School of National Learning Emphasized Japanese heritage –Shinto –Respect for emperor –Samurai culture & bushido
Maintain Control? …remove rival influences, but how to create loyalty?
Loyalty? Alternate Attendance System –Daimyo – 1 yr in Edo (Tokyo), 1 yr in district –Travel & gift giving Result: improved economy Improved roads & internal commercial economy
Result… Unification brought: Peace & end to civil war Rigid hierarchy Controlled isolation Internal development Heritage emphasized
But… Social upheaval still on horizon… With peace came: innovation & economic growth –Which led to: population growth, decreased need for Samurai, increased wealth of merchants