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Bellringer Write a 1-3 paragraph narrative summary of the history of the Indian Ocean trade between 600 and 1750. –Consider: –groups involved, locations.

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Presentation on theme: "Bellringer Write a 1-3 paragraph narrative summary of the history of the Indian Ocean trade between 600 and 1750. –Consider: –groups involved, locations."— Presentation transcript:

1 Bellringer Write a 1-3 paragraph narrative summary of the history of the Indian Ocean trade between 600 and –Consider: –groups involved, locations traded to, merchant interactions, commodities traded, impacts and exchanges…

2 Tradition & Change China Ming Dynasty A History of World Societies by McKay Pg

3 Ming Reign –What can be deduced from the years of reign? Doesn’t fit periodization based on European history because… –China is the least affected by Europeans –Who preceded the Ming? –Who succeeded the Ming?

4 Ming Themes Agricultural reconstruction Maritime expeditions Commercial expansion Urban culture

5 Ming Government Emperors = incompetent or erratic, despotic, ruthless –Used exam system & scholar bureaucrats but cautiously –Increased centralization Example: No chancellor Disadvantages?

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10 Forbidden City New Capital at Beijing Wealth, Power, Prestige (ie centralization) of emperors

11 Ming Government Eunuchs: –Castrated male slaves Acquired in dubious fashion Compliant & subservient Increasingly filled key government roles

12 Ming Government Scholar-bureaucrats: –Prized status because of education & government service –Threatened by eunuchs & emperors Often favored weak emperors to allow bureaucracy to manage empire

13 Ming Military Not expansionist Used hereditary service obligations Garrisons in north & Great Wall to control Mongols –Seemingly self-sufficient Ultimately, weak relying on northern nomads for security

14 Ming Daily Life Centered on family –Marriage, Male heirs –Status = combination of wealth, education, family, & government office Merchants still looked down on –Attempted to marry scholar- bureaucrats for status

15 Ming Daily Life Urban life –Silver as currency Advantages? Disadvantages? –Expansion of cities & trade make economy strong –Printing finally yields results New educated middle class

16 Ming Daily Life Rural life –Reclaiming land –Terracing farms –Increased output = increased population

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18 Ming Decline Dynastic cycle

19 Zheng He’s Expeditions How are his personal background, his purpose, & his interactions with scholars symbolic of the Ming?

20 Qing Dynasty

21 Qing Themes Northern nomadic Manchus used to suppress rebels & ascend to throne Expand China to new areas

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23 Economic and Social Changes

24 How did this dynasty rise to power? Chinese took advantage of chaos of late Yuan rule to rebel against Mongols Rebel leader and founder of Ming Dynasty, Hong Wu, named his dynasty “brilliant”

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26 How did this dynasty govern China? reintroduced Civil-Service Exam Emperors extremely powerful, often ruled as despots –Increased centralization –Reduced factionalism

27 How did dynasty affect daily life in China? Rebuilt bridges, canals, roads, temples, shrines, tax reform, Great Wall –Early attempts to help peasants –Late gentry dominance grows

28 What belief systems did this dynasty encourage? Discourage? Rebirth of adherence to Confucianism Many Chinese combined belief in Daoism, Confucianism, and Buddhism

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31 Asian Sea Trading Network What did European bring & how did Asian societies react? Arab Zone Glass Rugs & tapestries Slaves Indian Zone Cotton Gems Pepper Chinese Zone Paper & porcelain Silk & spice European Arrival in Asia

32 JAPAN

33 Timeline c = Feudal Japan –Emperors & Shoguns w/o authority –Daimyo w/ control –War common

34 In order to get power, one must attack those who have it.

35 Bringing Unity From feudal civil war, three military generals unified Japan 1.Nobunaga 2.Hideyoshi 3.Tokugawa Make use of European imports to strike at old authority –Use guns & surprise attacks to undermine rival daimyo –Use Christianity to undermine Buddhism

36 Timeline c = Feudal Japan –Emperors & Shoguns w/o authority –Daimyo w/ control –War common = Unification –Nobunaga, Hideyoshi, Tokugawa –Era of European influence

37 After Unification Unification by generals brought strict military government Emperor remained figurehead in Kyoto Daimyo remained regional lords …but…loyal to military dictator, Shogun Tokugawa Shogunate (Edo Period)

38 Timeline c = Feudal Japan –Emperors & Shoguns w/o authority –Daimyo w/ control –War common = Unification –Nobunaga, Hideyoshi, Tokugawa –Europeans bring guns & Christianity = Tokugawa Shogunate

39 In order to keep power, one must prevent others from getting it

40 After Unification Most European influence removed –Christians persecuted –Guns banned

41 Selective Borrowing… Attempted to balance change & stability 1.Dutch exchange at Nagasaki Technology & science Manufactured good & techniques 2.School of National Learning Emphasized Japanese heritage –Shinto –Respect for emperor –Samurai culture & bushido

42 Maintain Control? …remove rival influences, but how to create loyalty?

43 Loyalty? Alternate Attendance System –Daimyo – 1 yr in Edo (Tokyo), 1 yr in district –Travel & gift giving Result: improved economy Improved roads & internal commercial economy

44 Result… Unification brought: Peace & end to civil war Rigid hierarchy Controlled isolation Internal development Heritage emphasized

45 But… Social upheaval still on horizon… With peace came: innovation & economic growth –Which led to: population growth, decreased need for Samurai, increased wealth of merchants


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