Presentation on theme: "What were the underlying principles of the American Revolution? Constitutional Foundations."— Presentation transcript:
What were the underlying principles of the American Revolution? Constitutional Foundations
Enlightenment Ideology John Locke Voltaire Montesquieu Rousseau – Popular Sovereignty Natural Rights Freedom of Religion Separation of Power Social Contract
English History Magna Carta English Bill of Rights Glorious Revolution in England
Colonial Experience Virginia House of Burgesses Mayflower Compact New England Town Meetings Iroquois Confederacy Albany Plan of Union (1754) Virginia Petition of Rights Representative Democracy Majority Rule Loose Defensive Alliance
The Critical Period
After the War US deeply in debt (borrowed $$ to fight the war) States had most power (Congress had little power) Economic Depression (many citizens threatened with loss of farms) States involved in trade wars (protective tariffs, each printed $$)
Articles of Confederation 1 st Plan of Government “firm league of friendship” defensive purpose only One Branch of Govt. Unicameral Congress One vote for each State
Powers of Congress Under the Articles Declare War & Make Peace Determine size & use of Army & Navy forces raised by states Borrow $$ - ASK states to pay bills Foreign Relations (diplomats, alliances, trade) Manage Indian affairs Establish Post Offices Pass laws approved by 9 of 13 States
Successes Under the Articles WON WAR - defeated the British Negotiated Treaty of Paris Land Ordinance of 1785 Law providing for the division & sale of new territory in the Ohio River Valley Northwest Ordinance 1787 Law providing for the governance of territories & provision becoming a state
WEAK National Government No Executive No Court System Amended only if Unanimous WHY?
Government by the States Worked for individual interests / Not the good of the whole Created Economic Problems State Currencies 2. Intra-state Commerce State import taxes = trade wars between states 13 State Militias Made treaties with Indians, other States, and Foreign Nations
Problems with Foreign Nations British merchants– we’re not paying our debts British Gov’t. refused to leave Great Lakes / Ohio River Valley Spain closed Mississippi River to American shipping (Northwest settlers forced to ship goods east over Appalachian Mtns.)
Annapolis Conference (1786 Maryland) State Reps meet to discuss economic problems created by Articles Nationalists want to make national government stronger Not enough show up to make changes to Articles (only 5 states represented) **Agree to try again next year
Shays Rebellion New Mass. Tax Must be paid in gold or silver Protestors (small farmers) rebel Shut down state govt.
Significance of Shay’s Rebellion? National Security Citizens are still willing to rebel against govt. interference in your life Power to put down rebellion is limited Americans will “sacrifice social order for individual liberty” (confirmed Nationalist fears) Something must be done soon to avoid further unrest!!
The Constitutional Convention 1787 Philadelphia Mostly lawyers, large landowners and a few merchants No one to rep. Interests of farmers and frontiersmen Constitution Hall – Philadelphia