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Chapter 2 – Origins of American Government

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1 Chapter 2 – Origins of American Government
Section 1 Section 2 Section 3 Section 4 Section 5

2 Jumpstart Assignment For what reasons would someone move a long distance, possibly to another country? Why do you think the original American colonists traveled so far?

3 Basic Concepts Brought by English Settlers
The need for an ordered social system, or government. The idea of limited government, that is, that government should not be all-powerful. The concept of representative government—a government that serves the will of the people.

4 English Documents Magna Carta – “Great Charter” (1215) – protected barons from arbitrary acts by the king (power is not absolute) Trial by Jury Due Process of Law Basic rights of life liberty and property

5 English Documents Petition of Right (1628) – Charles I asks for tax increase, Parliament requires him to sign Petition of Right Jury of peers No housing of soldiers in peace time Eliminated martial law Rule of Law – even leaders must follow the law

6 English Documents English Bill of Rights (1689) – James II thrown out and replaced by William and Mary, who were forced to sign bill of rights. no standing army in peacetime Free elections Fair trial No cruel and unusual punishment No excessive bail


8 Meanwhile in the Colonies
3 types of colonies The royal colonies were ruled directly by the English monarchy. (Mass.,NY, NJ,Va, NC, SC, Ga.) The King granted land to people in North America, who then formed proprietary colonies. (Maryland, Penn., Delaware) The charter colonies were mostly self-governed, and their charters were granted to the colonists. (RI, Conn.)

9 Jumpstart Assignment Imagine you are 18, off to college, and your parents are still trying to control your life. How would you react? Explain your answer.

10 British Colonial Policies
Colonies were treated largely as a confederation. Then came George III. George liked power (restricting trade) and money (new taxes). George III wanted the colonists to help pay for war (French and Indian War).

11 No More Kings

12 Attempts to Unite New England Confederation (1643) – several settlements formed a “league of friendship” for defense against Native Americans Albany Plan of Union (1754) – plan for a yearly meeting of delegates from each colony to create policy (war/military). Stamp Act Congress (1765) – organized in protest to Stamp Act - a tax on all paper goods sold in the colonies (first opposition to Britain)

13 Growing Tensions Organized boycotts – refusal to buy certain products
Boston Massacre (1770) Boston Tea Party (1773)

14 Colonists Unite 1st Continental Congress (1774) – response to the Intolerable Acts (Dec. of Rights), and repealed British taxes. Shot Heard Round the World (April 19, 1775) Lexington and Concord (start of revolution) 2nd Continental Congress – served as gov’t during Revolutionary War, and wrote the Declaration of Independence July 4th, 1776.

15 Shot Heard Round the World

16 Fireworks

17 Jumpstart Assignment What does the phrase “all men are created equal” (from the Dec. of Ind.) mean to you? How has the interpretation of this phrase changed over time?

18 Declaration of Independence
People have individual rights. If a government doesn’t provide those rights, the people have the right to rebel. Justification for the war and separation from England.

19 John Adams

20 Articles of Confederation (Nov. 1777)
2nd national government for America Required ratification (formal approval) of all 13 colonies Created a unicameral (one-house) legislature Each state has one vote

21 Weaknesses

22 America Falling Apart States making their own money.
Creating their own armies. Taxing each others goods. Shay’s Rebellion is the last straw.

23 Create Your Own Declaration of Independence Song
Must Include Natural Rights Right to rebel if rights aren’t recognized by the government. Problems with the king Justifying the rebellion

24 Jumpstart Assignment The Articles of Confederation created a very weak national government. Why would the states purposely create a weak government under the articles? (You may have to look it up)

25 Constitutional Convention
55 delegates from 12 states (all but RI) Met to amend the Articles of Confederation Some called the convention illegal. Working in secrecy to avoid outside pressure James Madison (father of the Constitution)

26 Different Constitutional Plans
The New Jersey Plan Unicameral Congress Equal representation for States of different sizes More than one federal executive The Virginia Plan Three branches of government Bicameral legislature “National Executive” and “National Judiciary”

27 Constitutional Compromises
The Great Compromise Delegates agreed on a bicameral Congress, one segment with equal representation for States, and the other with representation proportionate to the States’ populations. The Three-Fifths Compromise The Framers decided to count a slave as three-fifths of a person when determining the population of a State. The Commerce and Slave Trade Compromise Congress was forbidden from taxing exported goods, and was not allowed to act on the slave trade for 20 years.

28 Jumpstart Assignment In your opinion, do you think that Michigan should raise taxes instead of cutting funding to schools and college scholarships? Explain your answer.

29 Constitutional Compromises
The Three-Fifths Compromise The Framers decided to count a slave as three-fifths of a person when determining the population of a State. The Commerce and Slave Trade Compromise Congress was forbidden from taxing exported goods, and was not allowed to act on the slave trade for 20 years.

30 Weaknesses of the Constitution
No Bill of Rights Not Completely Democratic Senators elected by state legislatures President elected by electoral college Slavery not abolished Slave trade would end in 1808, slavery in 1865 Did not include universal suffrage African-Americans could not vote until 1869 (15th) Women in 1919 (19th)

31 The Great Debate Anti-Federalists – opposed ratification
No bill of rights Powerful central government Federalists – supported ratification Articles were too weak States had their own bill of rights Separation of Powers limited the government

32 Ratification 9 states required
New Hampshire became the 9th state to ratify in June of 1788 Inauguration of the government did not happen until Virginia and New York ratified two months later.

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