Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2 – Origins of American Government"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 2 – Origins of American Government Section 1Section 2Section 3Section 4Section 5
2 Jumpstart AssignmentFor what reasons would someone move a long distance, possibly to another country? Why do you think the original American colonists traveled so far?
3 Basic Concepts Brought by English Settlers The need for an ordered social system, or government.The idea of limited government, that is, that government should not be all-powerful.The concept of representative government—a government that serves the will of the people.
4 English DocumentsMagna Carta – “Great Charter” (1215) – protected barons from arbitrary acts by the king (power is not absolute)Trial by JuryDue Process of LawBasic rights of life liberty and property
5 English DocumentsPetition of Right (1628) – Charles I asks for tax increase, Parliament requires him to sign Petition of RightJury of peersNo housing of soldiers in peace timeEliminated martial lawRule of Law – even leaders must follow the law
6 English DocumentsEnglish Bill of Rights (1689) – James II thrown out and replaced by William and Mary, who were forced to sign bill of rights.no standing army in peacetimeFree electionsFair trialNo cruel and unusual punishmentNo excessive bail
8 Meanwhile in the Colonies 3 types of coloniesThe royal colonies were ruled directly by the English monarchy. (Mass.,NY, NJ,Va, NC, SC, Ga.)The King granted land to people in North America, who then formed proprietary colonies. (Maryland, Penn., Delaware)The charter colonies were mostly self-governed, and their charters were granted to the colonists. (RI, Conn.)
9 Jumpstart AssignmentImagine you are 18, off to college, and your parents are still trying to control your life. How would you react? Explain your answer.
10 British Colonial Policies Colonies were treated largely as a confederation.Then came George III. George liked power (restricting trade) and money (new taxes).George III wanted the colonists to help pay for war (French and Indian War).
12 Attempts to UniteNew England Confederation (1643) – several settlements formed a “league of friendship” for defense against Native AmericansAlbany Plan of Union (1754) – plan for a yearly meeting of delegates from each colony to create policy (war/military).Stamp Act Congress (1765) – organized in protest to Stamp Act - a tax on all paper goods sold in the colonies (first opposition to Britain)
13 Growing Tensions Organized boycotts – refusal to buy certain products Boston Massacre (1770)Boston Tea Party (1773)
14 Colonists Unite1st Continental Congress (1774) – response to the Intolerable Acts (Dec. of Rights), and repealed British taxes.Shot Heard Round the World (April 19, 1775) Lexington and Concord (start of revolution)2nd Continental Congress – served as gov’t during Revolutionary War, and wrote the Declaration of Independence July 4th, 1776.
20 Articles of Confederation (Nov. 1777) 2nd national government for AmericaRequired ratification (formal approval) of all 13 coloniesCreated a unicameral (one-house) legislatureEach state has one vote
22 America Falling Apart States making their own money. Creating their own armies.Taxing each others goods.Shay’s Rebellion is the last straw.
23 Create Your Own Declaration of Independence Song Must IncludeNatural RightsRight to rebel if rights aren’t recognized by the government.Problems with the kingJustifying the rebellion
24 Jumpstart AssignmentThe Articles of Confederation created a very weak national government. Why would the states purposely create a weak government under the articles? (You may have to look it up)
25 Constitutional Convention 55 delegates from 12 states (all but RI)Met to amend the Articles of ConfederationSome called the convention illegal.Working in secrecy to avoid outside pressureJames Madison (father of the Constitution)
26 Different Constitutional Plans The New Jersey PlanUnicameral CongressEqual representation for States of different sizesMore than one federal executiveThe Virginia PlanThree branches of governmentBicameral legislature“National Executive” and “National Judiciary”
27 Constitutional Compromises The Great CompromiseDelegates agreed on a bicameral Congress, one segment with equal representation for States, and the other with representation proportionate to the States’ populations.The Three-Fifths CompromiseThe Framers decided to count a slave as three-fifths of a person when determining the population of a State.The Commerce and Slave Trade CompromiseCongress was forbidden from taxing exported goods, and was not allowed to act on the slave trade for 20 years.
28 Jumpstart AssignmentIn your opinion, do you think that Michigan should raise taxes instead of cutting funding to schools and college scholarships? Explain your answer.
29 Constitutional Compromises The Three-Fifths CompromiseThe Framers decided to count a slave as three-fifths of a person when determining the population of a State.The Commerce and Slave Trade CompromiseCongress was forbidden from taxing exported goods, and was not allowed to act on the slave trade for 20 years.
30 Weaknesses of the Constitution No Bill of RightsNot Completely DemocraticSenators elected by state legislaturesPresident elected by electoral collegeSlavery not abolishedSlave trade would end in 1808, slavery in 1865Did not include universal suffrageAfrican-Americans could not vote until 1869 (15th)Women in 1919 (19th)
31 The Great Debate Anti-Federalists – opposed ratification No bill of rightsPowerful central governmentFederalists – supported ratificationArticles were too weakStates had their own bill of rightsSeparation of Powers limited the government
32 Ratification 9 states required New Hampshire became the 9th state to ratify in June of 1788Inauguration of the government did not happen until Virginia and New York ratified two months later.