Presentation on theme: "Class 1 Introduction Sources, Resources, and Periods."— Presentation transcript:
Class 1 Introduction Sources, Resources, and Periods
Do Now ► Write down: an event that happened during the Second Temple or Rabbinic Periods Your favorite site in Israel something interesting about yourself
State of the Relationship ► You are Prime Minister Binyamin Netanahu. President Obama calls you and asks you to stop attacking Hamas in Gaza. What do you do?
Monday Morning Monarch ► The year is 589BCE. Nabuchadnezzar has appointed you to be the king of Judea nine years ago. You now feel pretty confident in your power and do not want to keep paying Nebuchadnezzar the exorbitant annual tax that he demands. ► Would you rebel and not pay the tax or continue being subservient?
Resisting Domination ► The year is 1940. The British and not allowing Jews to immigrate into Palestine. You are the leader of the Zionist movement. What do you do?
Resisting Domination ► The year is 168BCE. The Syrian-Greeks are in power. Many Jews have assimilated Greek language, culture, and religion with their Judaism. The Kohen Gadol is a corrupt Hellenizer. You want to see the Greeks go away and have an independent nation once again. ► Your name is Judah and have gathered a small following of militants. Would you risk your life and those of your followers to fight for freedom?
Secular Nationalism ► You are a religious Jew and pray for the renewed state of Israel 20 times a day. Finally after 2000 years Israel wins its war of independence. However, the leadership are secular Jews who don’t want to see any Judaism in the Jewish state. Do you support the new government?
Secular Nationalism ► The Maccabees were great heros in 164BCE but the year is now 90BCE and the ruler is the Hasmonean Alexander Yannai who hates the Pharisees and has even murdered great sages who opposed him.
Messianism ► You are a religious Jew and pray for Mashiah 30 times a day. There is a group of Jews who believe that Mashiah has already come but you don’t think they are right. ► Should you oppose them, tolerate them, support them…?
Conversion ► One million Russians have emigrated to Israel. 400,000 of them are not halakhically Jewish. You are the Chief rabbi. Do you allow them to convert?
Conversion ► You are on the Sahhedrin. John Hyracanus has forcibly converted thousands of Edomites in 110BCE. Can they be considrered part of the Jewish nation?
Compromise for Peace ► The year is 66CE. The Romans are ruling over you. They usually try to be fair to minorities but some local governors can be very nasty. You wish for political independence. You are a leader of one of the political parties, you are Rabban Yohanan ben Zakai. Your followers want to know if they should rebel against the Romans or tolerate them. ► What would you do?
Primary Sources ► Tanakh Ezra-Nehamiah, Daniel, Zechariah, Malakhi ► New Testament ► Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha ► Archaeology, Cuneiform Tablets ► Dead Sea Scrolls ► Josephus ► Greek and Roman Historians ► Talmud and Midrashim
Yosef ben Matityahu ► Lived 37-100CE ► Aka Titus Flavius Josephus
Works by Josephus ► 75 – Jewish Wars (Aramaic) ► 94 – Jewish Antiquities (Greek) ► 97 – Against Apion ► 98 – Life of Flavius Josephus
Josephus ► Apologetic to the Romans War says revolt was only by a few thugs. Tacitus says national rebellion, non-Roman Jews helped the Palestinian Jews War 6.241 says Titus urges that the Temple be spared. But compare Sulpicius Severus and Bavli Gittin 56b who say Titus demanded destruction of the Temple
Themes ► Dealing with Political Domination ► Nationalism ► Confronting External Cultures ► Tradition and Change ► Finding the roots of Judaism as we know it ► Unity and Diversity ► Interpretation and Text-centeredness ► Universalism and Particularism ► Messianism
History of Israel: The Big Picture ► Kings of Israel (1000-586BCE) ► Babylonian Period (586-539BCE) Tish’a be’Av ► Persian Period (539-332BCE) Purim ► Hellenistic Period (332-164BCE) Septuagint ► Hasmonean Period (164-63BCE) Hanukah, Sectarianism ► Roman Period (63BCE – 395CE)
Homework ► Read 2 Kings 24-25 and Jer 52 carefully. Make note of the dates provided. ► List the last three kings of Judah. ► What happened to each of them and when?
Last Kings of Judah ► Jehoiakim 609-598BCE Vassal to Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon ► Jehoiachin 597BCE Captured by Nebuchandezzar in a siege Imprisoned in Babylonia Freed in 562BCE by Amel-Marduk ► Zedekiah 597-586BCE Placed on throne by Nebuchadnezzar Rebelled and entered alliance with Egypt Watched children murdered before being blinded