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The Thirteen Colonies APUSH.

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Presentation on theme: "The Thirteen Colonies APUSH."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Thirteen Colonies APUSH

2 Southern Colonies

3 Charter of the Virginia Company
advertisement for a voyage to America the joint-stock company became the chief colonization tool of England because it reduced the risk of each investor even though settlers left England for the New World they still believed they were Englishmen – with the same rights as Englishmen in England

4 Jamestown colony (1607) first permanent English settlement (1607)
settlers who established the British colony in Virginia were primarily seeking to profit economically Jamestown was never meant to be a permanent settlement – it was meant to make a quick profit

5 Problems at Jamestown 104 settlers (all men) landed in Jamestown in May 1607 by November 1607 only 38 survived (death rates of ½ were not uncommon) Jamestown was swarming with disease causing mosquitoes (malaria)

6 Captain John Smith (Virginia)
John Smith provided the early leadership and discipline necessary to make the colony successful basic problem was the expectation of easy gold no work no eat policy (gentlemen colonists who were concerned about gold instead of food – they didn’t feel they needed to hunt or gather for food even though there was plenty of animals in the forest and fish in the river) skillful Indian relations (saved by Pocahontas – it was a setup to show the power of Chief Powhatan) periodically resupplied but continued to have problems (lack of a cash crop) political freedom and the recruitment of women helped with the ultimate survival of Jamestown

7 Pocahontas “saves” Captain John Smith

8 Chief Powhatan

9 The “Starving Time” Spring 1607: 104 colonists
Spring1609: 300 immigrants Spring 1610: 60 colonists : 10,000 immigrants Spring 1624: 1,200 colonists Adult life expectancy: 40 years Death of children before the age of 5: 80% starving time John Smith had left the colony (he was injured in a hunting accident and had to return to England for medical treatment) the colonists were reduced to eating dogs, cats, rats, mice, snakes, and the corpses of dead men 1610 – relief expedition under Gates finds the men so pitiful that they load up to go back to England Baron De La Warr intercepts them and forces them back to work (he has ample supplies and men)

10 John Rolfe the Father of Tobacco
John Rolfe (the father of tobacco and Pocahontas’ husband) makes tobacco the cash crop Jamestown needed for survival (he’s successful in crossing the native and West Indian tobacco breeds) Jamestown goes tobacco mad (colonists grow tobacco sidewalks and between grave markers) Virginia’s Gold and Silver

11 Virginia’s Gold and Silver…
1618: produces 20,000 pounds of tobacco 1622: produces 60,000 pounds of tobacco 1627: produces 500,000 pounds of tobacco 1629: produces 1.5 million pounds of tobacco tobacco puts Virginia on a firm economic footing Virginia needs an abundance of cheap labor by the 1660s, low tobacco prices due to overproduction brought hard times for Virginia (single cash crop, nothing else to support their economy)

12 Head-Right System & Indentured Servitude
head-right system: colonists received 50 acres for each person (indentured servants) whose passage to Virginia he financed three-quarters of the English migrants to the Chesapeake colonies were indentured servants two out of five indentured servants died before their contract expired this lead to abuses (sea captains kidnapping children, drunks, etc…) indentured servants typically worked for 7 years, once they fulfilled their contract they were given land and their freedom What was the primary purpose of the head-right system? primary purpose was not land distribution but an adequate supply of labor colonial American history is rift with accounts of chronic labor shortages Did slavery develop immediately in Virginia? NO, NO, NO slavery didn’t exist in the beginning because it was too expensive – it was cheaper to purchase indentured servants

13 House of Burgesses House of Burgesses was the first representative assembly in North America consisted mainly of leading planter functions like the House of Lords back in England (again, colonists still saw themselves as Englishmen; they were proud to be Englishmen) this showed respect to England by modeling their government like the House of Lords high death rate in Virginia ensured rapid turnover of members

14 “Widowarchy” widowarchy: high mortality among husbands and fathers left many women in the Chesapeake colonies with unusual autonomy and wealth

15 Problems in Virginia in the late 1600s
Governor William Berkeley Bacon’s Rebellion slavery developed as an institution in the American south because the indentured servitude system failed to provide adequate labor supply growing divisions between farmers (former indentured servants) and wealthy landowners (rulers of the tidewater) Bacon’s Rebellion (1676) – conflict between the backcountry and the tidewater (east) it came about as a result of the failure of the colonial governor Lord Berkeley, to protect adequately the frontier settlers (former indentured servants) from Indian attacks Effects of Bacon’s Rebellion the indentured servitude system was failing sharp class differences colonial resistance to royal control Nathaniel Bacon

16 Maryland & Lord Baltimore
Maryland (1634) Lord Baltimore (George Calvert) healthier location than Jamestown economy: mixture of tobacco and staple crops (wheat and corn); mixture of small farms and plantations planned as a Catholic haven – huge tracts of land granted to his Catholic relatives (Catholics were outnumbered almost from the beginning) Maryland Toleration Act of 1649: guaranteed toleration to all Christians (it guaranteed religious toleration to all who believed in the trinity)

17 Bacon’s Rebellion and Its Aftermath
Reading Assignment Bacon’s Rebellion and Its Aftermath Read The American Spirit (pages 69-73)

18 Good Afternoon!!! We are getting textbooks today, make sure you have your student ID

19 New England Colonies

20 Separatists vs. Puritans
Separatists (Pilgrims) Separatists (aka Pilgrims): English Protestants who preferred to SEPARATE from rather than to reform the Church of England (1620: Plymouth) Puritans: English Protestants that did NOT want to separate from the Church of England rather they wanted to purify (reform) it ( ) Puritans tolerated no one whose expressed religious views varied from their own views

21 The Mayflower 1620: roughly 100 people (half Separatists) set sail on the Mayflower storm took them off course – Plymouth Bay was way outside the domain of the Virginia Company the settlers became squatters without legal right to land or to establish a government

22 Mayflower Compact Mayflower Compact: it is not a constitution but an agreement to abide by MAJORITY RULE written and signed before they got off the Mayflower led to adult males meeting in assemblies to make laws in town meetings

23 Plymouth Plantation

24 William Bradford writes “A Model of Christian Charity” and “History of Plymouth Plantation”

25 “We shall be seen as a city upon a hill”
John Winthrop “We shall be seen as a city upon a hill” believed he had a “calling” from God to lead Massachusetts “A City Upon a Hill” wished to show that a society based on the teachings of the Bible could flourish wished to shame the Church of England into reform economic motives: economy based on agriculture, shipbuilding and the selling of foodstuffs to the West Indies – particularly after the Puritan migration stopped

26 Great (Puritan) Migration
Great (Puritan) Migration (1630s) – what was going on to push Puritans out of England? Puritans in England suffered greater persecution as England moved toward a civil war presence of women ensures growth (in contrast to early Virginia, Massachusetts Bay attracted disciplined, motivated men and women)

27 Roger Williams: Puritan Rebel
loud mouth radical challenged Puritan rule wanted separation of church and state (believed that the state should not impose its authority in matters of faith condemned Massachusetts Bay charter – he didn’t approve of the seize of land from the Indians without payment argued for a full break from the Anglican Church (remember: Puritans didn’t want to separate from the church they just wanted to purify it) he eventually has to leave the Massachusetts Bay colony and later founded Rhode Island

28 Anne Hutchinson: Puritan Rebel
believed the truly saved did not need to obey the law of either God or man (Antinomianism) believed holy life was no sure sign of salvation (belief of Calvinism – predestination) placed on trial in 1636 because of her personal interpretation of the minister’s sermons for her friends (this threatened patriarchcial control) banished from Massachusetts Bay colony while pregnant – she helps Roger Williams found Rhode Island she later traveled to NY where her and her family were killed by an Indian attack John Winthrop saw God’s hand in her death!!!

29 17th Century New England Settlements
Seventeenth-Century New England Settlements The Massachusetts Bay Colony was the hub of New England. All earlier colonies grew into it; all later colonies grew out of it

30 The Salem Witchcraft Hysteria
Reading Assignment The Salem Witchcraft Hysteria Read The American Spirit (pages 83 and 84)

31 Good Afternoon!!! Pick up the following items…
3 different color markers or colored pencils Copy of the Thirteen Colonies Map Copy of Reading Assignment Label the Thirteen Colonies and color code the three regions (New England, Middle, Southern) Use pages 24 and 25 in the Atlas

32 Restoration colonies

33 South Carolina Cash Crop…Rice
rice would be South Carolina’s cash crop (originally grown in Africa, planters imported West African slaves and the slaves brought with them rice) rice was considered an exotic food in England by 1730, about 66% of South Carolina’s population consisted of slaves (slave grown rice and indigo) good harbor results in thriving West Indies trade West Indies connection, especially in regards to slave codes feared slave rebellion (Stono Rebellion 1739)

34 North Carolina Cash Crop: Tobacco
tobacco was North Carolina’s cash crop North Carolina didn’t rely much on slaves because the tobacco farms were small

35 New Amsterdam to New York City
founded in 1664 by the English when they took it over from the Dutch economic reason (the English wanted to close the gap between New England and the Chesapeake) patroonship system: granted to wealthy promoters in exchange for bringing 50 settlers to the colony (chief purpose was to increase the population of the colony; very similar to the head-right system in Virginia) as a result of England taking NY from the Dutch, the British gained a strategic harbor between her northern and southern colonies and England now controlled the Atlantic Coast!!! James II allowed the Dutch to live in NY and required them to be treated well (diverse population - not all English)

36 New York Aristocrats

37 William Penn Penn’s father was owed a debt by the crown – easy payoff with the last of the Virginia Company’s land Penn founded Pennsylvania in 1681 Holy Experiment – Penn’s attempt to establish complete political and religious freedom (most liberal of the early colonies)

38 The Quakers Penn wanted his colony to be a refuge for the Quakers
Quakers believed in humility, hardwork, help for the unfortunate, and brotherly love Quakers opposed war, violence, rank and pride believed in the equality of men and women believed religious authority was found within each person’s soul not from the Bible

39 The Quakers

40 Georgia: The “Buffer” Colony
founded by James Oglethorpe in 1732 (philanthropist who studied the prison system) believed many could make good if given a new start reasons for settlement buffer colony against Spanish Florida asylum for debtors only colony to receive direct financial support from the home government in London

41 Venn Diagram Instructions…
On the back of the 13 colonies map draw a triple Venn Diagram Label the circles with the 3 regions (New England, Middle and Southern) Work with a partner to fill in the Venn Diagram

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