Presentation on theme: "Machu Piccu. Inca Road System Inca Road System Over 14,000 miles of road Connected mountain people with lowland population Paved the roads with stone."— Presentation transcript:
Inca Road System Inca Road System Over 14,000 miles of road Connected mountain people with lowland population Paved the roads with stone and created walls so that travelers would not fall of cliffs Greatly increased trade, communication, and transport Rest stops were created along the road systems
Inca Social Life Inca diet consisted mostly of potatoes, grains, berries, fish, vegetable, maize, nuts Ate alpaca, guinea pig, and other wild animal meat Road system aided the success of the farming community
Spanish Conquest Weakened Empire ◦ Inca was divided by a war between Huascar Capac and Atahualpa Capac over newly dominated territory ◦ Smallpox spread from Central America Pizarro came with few men but thousands of native allies Pizarro
Spanish Conquest Atahualpa defeated his brother in the civil war and asked to meet with Pizarro Spanish tried to convince them to accept King Charles I and convert to Christianity Spanish became impatient and attacked the Inca and took Atahualpa as a hostage ◦ Took royal gold and silver and put him to death Appointed Manco Inca Capac as the emperor and expected him to follow Spanish rule
Spanish Presence in Americas Primarily in South (“Latin”) America and Mexico (which extended quite far north) Encomienda system of land allocation puts Spanish/European landowning system in New World Mercantilist economy tied to Spain, made Spain economic superpower in Europe in the th century
Economic/Revolution Economy derived from Sugar plantations in Caribbean; new world crops (corn, coffee, chocolate, potatoes) But more from mineral wealth: Gold, Silver (Potosi), gemstones. Spanish gov’t implants admin system of viceroys or intendants All goes along well until the French Revolution and American Rev. late 1700’s
Reasons for anti-Spanish Spain also decreases in power after 1700 as their royal dynasty dies out and the Bourbon dynasty of France is installed. Significant disgruntlement among indigenous population over forced conversion; unhappiness of local spanish population over ties to Spain and viceroy and social system
Napoleon’s Coronation (painting by J.L. David)
1808 in the midst of Napoleonic wars in Europe, Napoleon invades Portugal Royal family of Portugal flees to Brazil and locals rebel Former independence movement in Brazil in Minas Gervais in 1789 led by Tiradentes had failed Same thing in Spanish countries as Creoles are displaced by Peninsulares (native Europeans); emigration increased after Napoleon puts his brother on the throne. Spanish revolt against Josef Bonaparte and form Juntas, claiming that they rule in the name of the legitimate king, Ferdinand VII 1810 Creoles in Latin America claim loyalty to Ferdinand and charge their Vice-Roy with disloyalty: If the king can’t rule them, they will rule themselves!
1810 Priest Miguel de Hidalgo leads revolt against local Spanish rule in Mexico Proclaimed Revolution on September 16, 1810 Originally started as part of a Creole social club, but overthrown; turns to the local population of Indians and marched on Queretaro Hidalgo’s forced defeated January 1811 He is captured, excommunicated, and sentenced to death. When given a chance to renounce his treason, he does, and thus is seen as a traitor instead of martyr
1820 General Augustin de Iturbide declares independence from Spain He is a compromise candidate as Fr. Jose Maria Morales seen as too radical, executed after capture by Iturbide in 1815 Iturbide in 1820 claims Mexican independence with Spanish Monarchy; in 1821 the Mexican congress crowns him as Emperor Augustin I; overthrown in 1823.
Southern republics of Mexico break away and become Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua and Costa Rica Ultimately will lead to war in 1846 with US, but Mexico is a republic with a president, constitution and congress.
Contrast with Brazil Brazilians developed earlier sense of Nationalism in conflict between Portuguese and Dutch over commercial interests. Ca. 1654, Brazil expels Dutch in favor of Portugal, but considers themselves on an equal footing with Spanish colonies. Different social situation than Mexico; more about money than race.
Brazilian Independence 1729 Portugal realizes that Minas Gerais has been mining diamonds as well as gold, tries to limit # of people, but there’s a huge rush to mine diamonds. Glut. While racism isn’t in effect as the Creoles in mexico, slavery is a major factor in Portugal; escaped slaves become Quilombos, intermix with local population Coffee and sugar also major crops (labor intensive)
Brazil 1808 everything falls apart because of Napoleon as well Royal family of Portugal flees to Brazil and locals rebel Former independence movement in Brazil in Minas Gervais in 1789 led by Tiradentes had failed. In the midst of Napoleon’s wars, with King in Portugal, new republic set up.
Venezuela Simon Bolivar b. 1793; Creole Enlightenment influenced, studied in Europe Claimed loyalty to Ferd. 7 th in 1810 Goes to Britain for help 1811 congress declares Venezuela independent 1812 Earthquake
Bolivar, continued 1816 Bolivar returns with military aid against King 1819 Bolivar becomes President; new constitution, hereditary senate Bolivar provides military aid against spain and helps liberate Equador, Columbia (including Panama) and Grand Columbia. Bolivia named after him