2Setting the SceneIn Charleston, a cook named Abigail Jones put an ad in the paper, stating that turtle meat would be available for sale on July 4th only. At the time, ice cream and turtle soup were the two most popular holiday foods.After the War of 1812, Fourth of July celebrations were more popular than ever. Americans were proud of their growing country.
3An Era of Good FeelingsIn 1816, Republican James Monroe easily beat his Federalist opponent to become America’s 5th President.The Federalist party was now so unpopular that many Federalists had joined the Republicans.Monroe was the last Revolutionary War hero to become President. He still dressed in the style of the late 1700’s while most Americans now wore long pants and loose hair.
4An Era of Good FeelingsAmericans were fond of the old man. Crowds cheered for Monroe wherever he went – even in Boston.Monroe helped create a new sense of national unity. Many noted that the nation was entering an “era of good feelings.”When Monroe ran for reelection in 1820, no candidate opposed him. The Federalist party had disappeared.
5Three Sectional Leaders Though conflicts between parties declined, arguments between different sections of the country started to increase.Three young men rose up and spoke for their sections at this time. Each man would become a leader in Congress for the next 30 years.They were John Calhoun, Daniel Webster and Henry Clay.
6Calhoun in the SouthJohn C. Calhoun spoke for the South. He had grown up in South Carolina.Calhoun’s energy and intensity won him the nickname, “Young Hercules.”Calhoun had supported the War of He also was a defender of slavery and opposed strengthening the federal government.
7Webster of the NorthDaniel Webster of the North was the most skillful speaker of his time. He was described as having a “silver tongue.”There was even a story written about him where he beat the devil in a debate.Webster had opposed the War of 1812 and wanted to increase the power of the federal government.Webster also thought that slavery was evil, and should be abolished.
8Clay of the WestHenry Clay spoke for the west. He was born in Virginia, but moved to Kentucky when he was 20.He was once fined for brawling, and was the most famous War Hawk in 1812, but he was more know for his charm.Clay, like Webster, favored a strong federal government to help the country grow.
9Helping American Businesses Grow After the War of 1812, American leaders were faced with serious economic issues.Despite the growth in territory and the general good mood of the nation, the economy faced severe problems.This was because the charter for the national bank had expired and the country had no major bank to regulate or loan money.
10Helping American Businesses Grow State banks were left to make money and give loans, but they often gave out too much money, which led to inflation (increase in the price of goods.)Though Republicans had opposed a federal bank in 1800, by the time Monroe took office many of them chose to charter a new bank of the U.S.
11Protection from Foreign Competition Congress helped American industry after the War of 1812 by establishing the Second Bank of the U.S.Now that the war with Britain was over, cheap British goods flooded into the U.S. and put many American merchants out of business.Congress responded by passing the Tariff of 1816, which made British imports more expensive. This helped New England industrialists, but angered Southerners, who imported British goods.
12Clay’s American System The dispute over tariffs showed the growth of sectionalism.Sectionalism is loyalty to one’s state or region rather than to the nation.Sectionalism made national unity more difficult during the Era of Good Feelings.Henry Clay wanted to promote economic growth for all sections.
13Clay’s American System Clay’s program, called the American System, called for high tariffs, which would help northern factories.Clay believed that with this money, Northerners would have money to by crops from the South and the West.Clay wanted Congress to use money from the tariffs to build roads, bridges and canals, which would make it easier and cheaper for farmers in the South and West to transport their goods to cities.
14Clay’s American System The American System never fully went into effect because Congress never spent much money on roads or transportation.Southerners hated Clay’s plan. They already had many rivers that were already perfect for shipping goods.Henry Clay’s American System unintentionally led to the growth of sectionalism.
15The Supreme Court Expands Federal Power Under Chief Justice John Marshall, the Supreme Court strengthened the power of the federal government to boost the economy.After the creation of the Second Bank of the U.S., Maryland tried to tax the bank and drive it out of business. James McCulloch, the Bank cashier, refused to pay the tax.In the case of McCulloch v. Maryland, the Supreme Court ruled that states have no power to control federal institutions within their borders.
16The Supreme Court Expands Federal Power McCulloch v. Maryland strengthened federal power and allowed the bank to continue to grow.In the case of Gibbons v. Ogden the Supreme Court upheld the power of the federal government to regulate trade between states. This case said that a state could only control trade within its borders.
17New Nations in the Americas Chapter 11, Section 4
18Setting the SceneOn a quiet Sunday in 1810 the church bell rang in the Mexican village of Dolores. In the square, Indians gathered around the village priest, Miguel Hidalgo.Hidalgo called for Natives to join the struggle to make Mexico independent. Thousands in Mexico and other Latin American countries fought for their freedom from Spain at this time.
19Revolution In Latin America By 1810, Spain’s Latin American colonies had reason to want independence.Most people, even Creoles, had little or no say in government.A Creole is a person who is born to Spanish parents in Latin America.
20Revolution In Latin America Creoles demanded a role in government.Indians were also growing more frustrated by Spain.Harsh rules kept them forever in debt.
21Mexican IndependenceMiguel Hidalgo led Mexico’s fight for independence in 1810.His rebel forces took control of several provinces before he was captured and executed.Another priest named Jose Morelos took Hidalgo’s place.
22Mexican IndependenceMorelos called for peasants to be given land, making him unpopular with the wealthy Creoles.Before long he was also captured and killed by the Spanish.Creoles slowly began to join the revolution and in 1821 rebel forces led by Creoles won their independence and made Mexico a republic.
23The LiberatorAll over Latin America, revolutions spread through Spanish colonies like a wildfire.The best known revolutionary leader was Simon Bolivar, who became known as “The Liberator” for his role in the Latin American wars of Independence.
24Mexican IndependenceBolivar came from a wealthy Creole family in Venezuela and worked for its independence from a young age.He soon became a leader of rebel forces, leading them over the Andes Mountains and into Colombia.There he surprised and defeated the Spanish in 1819, forming a new Republic of Great Colombia.
25Dom Pedro: What a nice guy Other New NationsIn Argentina, Jose de San Martin led the people to freedom, as well as the people of Chile, Peru and Ecuador.In 1821 the people of Central America declared independence and later formed the United Provinces of Central America.Brazil won its freedom from Portugal peacefully. When they demanded their independence the Prince of Portugal joined them and became their new leader.Dom Pedro: What a nice guy
26The New RepublicsSpain’s former colonies modeled their constitutions on that of the United States, yet their experience was much different.Latin America’s huge size and high, rugged mountains kept them from uniting into a single country.
27The New RepublicsThe new republics had a hard time setting up a stable government because the colonists had little or no experience in government.Powerful leaders took advantage of this and seized control of the governments, keeping most of Latin America from becoming democracies.
28The U.S. Gains FloridaSpain lost one of its colonies to the United States instead of to a revolt.Many Americans wanted to gain possession of Florida because it was a refuge for rebellious Seminole and Creek Indians as well as escaped African American Slaves.
29Black SeminolesSince the 1700’s the Spanish had protected runaways slaves.Seminole Indians also allowed slaves to live with them if they would agree to share crops.These slaves adopted many Seminole customs.
30Black SeminolesOne settlement known as Negro Fort contained about 1,000 former slaves.General Andrew Jackson demanded that the Spanish demolish the fort.When they refused the U.S. invaded Florida and destroyed the fort.
31Spain Gives Up FloridaIn 1818 Jackson invaded Florida again, and the Spanish were too busy to protest.In 1821, Spain agreed to give up Florida to the U.S. in exchange for $5 million in the Adams-Onis Treaty. The treaty was worked out between John Quincy Adams and Spanish diplomats.
32The Monroe DoctrineAmericans cheered as Latin American countries gained their independence, but in 1815 European countries like Prussia, France, Russia and Austria teamed up to crush many revolutions in Europe.The British feared this alliance and wanted the Spanish out of Latin America where they gained wealth through trade.Americans also feared that Spain wanted to regain its colonies in Latin America, and decided to issue the Monroe Doctrine.
33The Monroe DoctrineIn the Monroe Doctrine (1823) the U.S. declared that we would not interfere in European affairs or current colonies, but that we would also not tolerate any European interference in the western hemisphere.With British help, America enforced this claim for the next century.