Presentation on theme: "Middle East and East Asia Post Classical Era Two dominant (hegemonic) powers, heirs to the classical heritage, dominant trade, ability otoadopt and adapt."— Presentation transcript:
Middle East and East Asia Post Classical Era Two dominant (hegemonic) powers, heirs to the classical heritage, dominant trade, ability otoadopt and adapt.
Middle East – Beginning Early Post Classical Period (600 C.E.) In 630 C.E. followers of Islam attacked and conquered Mecca. They forced inhabitants to adopt Islam and destroyed all shrines. They built mosques. After his death, his advisors appointed Abu Bakr, a close friend, to serve as the caliph or deputy. The caliph became head of state and religious leader, commander of military, and chief juror.
Middle East – Beginning Early Post Classical Period (600 C.E.) The Shia sect was formed by the 4 th caliph, a cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad who felt the position should be inherited from Muhammad’s descendants. The Sunnis believed the position should be decided among the umma or Muhammad’s followers.
Middle East – Beginning Early Post Classical Period (600 C.E.) The Umayyad caliphate was most interested in conquest. Conquered peoples could practice their faith, but they were required to pay a tax or “jizya” in order to do so.
Middle East – Beginning Early Post Classical Period (600 C.E.) When the Abbasids took control of the caliphate, religious officials and judges administered public policy based the Quran and Sharia (the holy laws). The Abbasids had a standing army and established a bureaucracy for finances, taxation, coinage, and postal services. They appointed regional governors and maintained excellent roads. The Abbasids fell in 1258 at the hands of the Mongols.
Tang/Song Dynasty Early Post Classical Period (600 C.E.) After the fall of the Han, the Sui dynasty established centralized rule in China through tight political discipline. Under the Sui, the Grand Canal was established. It allowed China to prosper
Tang Dynasty Early Post Classical Period (600 C.E.) The Tang Dynasty transformed Chinese society. Emperior Tang Taizong was ruthless. He distributed land using the equal field system. He relied on the bureaucracy of merit. Confucianist principles.
Tang/Song Dynasty Early Post Classical Period (600 C.E.) The Tang was brought down by military commanders who used peasants to rebel. The Song had a strong Confucian government bureaucracy based on merit. Huge centralized government with many peasant revolts. Mongols attacked and brought them down in 1279.
Middle East- Social Post Classical Period (600 C.E.) Agricultural growth spurred population growth with the development of huge cities. Before Muhammad, Arab women had many rights not seen in other regions They could inherit property, divorce husbands, engage in business. Women were equal in the eyes of Allah. Veiling of women originated in Mesopotamian and Persian tradition.
East Asia Social Post Classical Period (600 C.E.) Increased agricultural output had a dramatic impact on population growth, urbanization, and social structures. Between 900 and 1200, China grew from 50 million to 115 million. Increased ancestor reverence and footbinding were two dominant practices.
Middle East Economic Post Classical Period (600 C.E.) Sugarcane, rice, wheat, vegetables, fruits, indigo, cotton, and henna. Textile industry emerged. Gold and salt came from China Slaves came from west Africa. Amber and furs came from Eastern Europe
China Economic Post Classical Period (600 C.E.) “Flying cash” or letters of credit were accepted. Tang developed a tribute relationship with Korea. A vassal state, Korea gave gifts to Chinese emperors to avoid occupation by the Tang. Vietnamese adopted Chinese agricultural methods and irrigation techniques. Fast growing rice came to China from Vietnam.
Middle East Technological Post Classical Period (600 C.E.) New methods of farming – irrigation, fertilizer, crop rotation Manufacture of paper came from the Chinese (Battle of Talas River) Improvements in the camel saddle allowed more goods to travel the desert. Lateen or triangular sail borrowed from Indian and Chinese ships allowed more direct routes. Astrolabe form the Hellenistic Mediterranean allowed them to calculate latitude.
East Asia Technological Post Classical Period (600 C.E.) Heavy iron plows, extensive irrigation systems, use of manure and organize materials to fertilize the soil, terraced mountain farming. Porcelain making Gunpowder Printing Block printing and movable type Naval technology—magnetic compass which was borrowed by seafarers throughout the Indian Ocean basin.
East Asia Religious Post Classical Period (600 C.E.) Buddhism came to China via merchants traveling on the Silk Road. Under the Tang and the Song, Buddhism took hold in China. After the fall of the Han, support for Confucianism waned; several religions were established in China, i.e. Christianity, Zoroastrianism, and Islam. These religions of salvation were mostly followed by foreign merchants.
East Asia Religious Post Classical Period (600 C.E.) Buddhism found converts in the cities. The Chinese were attracted to Buddhism because of its high moral standards, its intellectual sophistication, and its promise of salvation. Wealthy converts donated land which monks farmed and shared with nearby peasants. Confucianists disliked Buddhism because of his emphasis on celibacy and monastic lifestyle, which was the opposite of the Confucian focus on family.
East Asia Religious Post Classical Period (600 C.E.) Neoconfucianism developed out of the Confucian scholars’ appreciation for Buddhist interest in individual cosmic issues. Neoconfucianism spread into Vietnam, Korea, and Japan.
After the lesson, I jotted these down Both were centralized Both maintained control over lucrative trade routes Both were hegemonic Both enhanced then restricted women’s roles Both were bureaucratic Both had strong militaries Both were heirs to the classical world Both were multi-ethnic empires Both adopted and adapted ideas Both developed agricultural techniques (population boom) Both developed advanced economic components which facilitated trade. Both fragmented due to insularity and overexpansion and corruption Both fell to Mongol Invaders Exclusive vs Inclusive Meritocracy vs Theocracy Intolerant of Buddhism vs Dhimmi Favorable balance of trade vs no tribute (role of Islam) Smoother transition from classicism vs Brnad new culture Items traded Mandate of Heaven vs Caliphate succession Arabic vs Chinese script