Presentation on theme: "Imperialism in Latin America"— Presentation transcript:
1 Imperialism in Latin America PreviewMain Idea / Reading FocusPower Struggles in MexicoFaces of History: Emiliano ZapataGrowing U.S. InfluenceMap: United States Intervention in the CaribbeanVisual Study Guide / Quick FactsVideo: The Impact of Imperialism
2 Imperialism in Latin America Main IdeaImperialism in Latin America involved the United States and European nations seeking to strengthen their political and economic influence over the region.Reading FocusHow did various groups struggle for power in Mexico before and during the Mexican Revolution?How did growing U.S. influence in Latin America change the region?
3 Power Struggles in Mexico Mexico won independence from Spain in 1821 and became a republic in 1823, but political factions struggled for control of the government. Conflicts caused violence well into the next century.In the 30 years after independence, Antonio López de Santa Ana dominated Mexican politicsPopular for military victoriesServed as president five timesEarly ConflictsBegan career as liberal reformerAs power increased, became conservativeExiled several times; returned when enemies defeated1855, overthrown by group of reformers, exiled, never returnedSanta Ana’s RuleLeader of reformers, Benito Juárez, reduced power of Catholic Church, militaryConservatives outraged; civil war eruptedJuárez, liberal allies triumphedJuárez’s Reforms
4 Power Struggles in Mexico Conservatives found ally in EuropeFrench emperor Napoleon III wanted to restore French empire in Americas1861, sent French troops into Mexico, overthrew government, installed Austrian archduke Maximilian as emperor of MexicoThe Second Mexican EmpireMaximilian ended up alienating both conservatives, liberalsFrench withdrew troops; Maximilian did not have enough support to stay in power; surrendered; executedMexican Republic restored; Juárez reelected president, became one of Mexico’s greatest national heroesRepublic Restored
5 The Mexican Revolution Díaz’s RulePorfirio Díaz came to power after Juarez’s deathRuled with iron fist; maintained law and order in MexicoImprisoned opponents; used army to keep peace at any costModernizationDíaz helped modernize Mexico by encouraging foreign investmentExports boomed; railroads expanded quickly; yet most remained poorWealth concentrated in hands of foreign investors, Mexican eliteThe Mexican RevolutionDíaz controlled outcome of 1910 election; jailed opponent, Francisco MaderoMadero freed from jail; fled to TexasDeclared himself president; called for revolution against Díaz government
6 Villa and Zapata Madero returned to Mexico, found rebellion spreading. Two men gathered support from lowest classes, began attacking government forcesFrancisco “Pancho” Villa led band of rebels supporting Madero’s ideas; disgraced Diaz’s government by capturing city of Juarez, 1911Emiliano Zapata led group of indigenous peasants, called for land reformsDíaz soon forced to resign
8 United States Involvement More ViolenceMadero elected president later that year; turmoil continuedWithin months, army chief Victoriano Huerta seized power, imprisoned MaderoFormer Madero supporters opposed HuertaUnited States InvolvementPancho Villa’s army of small ranchers and cowboys in the north and Zapata’s peasant army in the south revolted against Huerta.1914, United States intervened, sent Marines to occupy VeracruzBrought Mexico, U.S. close to warHuerta tried to stay in power, but resigned and fled to Spain
9 Carranza as PresidentVenustiano Carranza declared himself president. Zapata and Villa refused support and the nation was plunged into another civil war.End of 1915, Venustiano Carranza had defeated rivalsVilla continued to lead attacks against Carranza governmentU.S. backed Carranza; Villa retaliated, launched attack across U.S. borderU.S. forces pursued Villa back across border, but unable to capture himCarranza Opposed1920, Villa finally agreed to halt attacks, Carranza began nation buildingNew constitution allowed the government to redistribute land, limited power of church, protected citizens’ rightsMexico still struggled with widespread povertyCarranza Reforms
10 What were the major events of the Mexican Revolution? SequenceWhat were the major events of the Mexican Revolution?Answer(s): President Porfirio Diaz jailed his opponent, Francisco Madero; Madero called for a revolution; Francisco "Pancho" Villa led a band of rebels who captured city of Juárez; Emiliano Zapata called for land reforms; Diaz resigned
11 Growing U.S. InfluenceThe United States had become a growing economic force in Latin America by the late 1800s. Economic power and political power grew together, and the United States exerted its influence and control in many ways.Island of Cuba one of Spain’s colonies in the Americas1860s, Cuban nationalists began fighting for independenceSpain exiled leaders of nationalist revoltsUprising in CubaOne exiled leader, José Martí, continued struggle for independence from New York CityPoet, journalist, Martí urged Cubans to continue fightFounded Cuban Revolutionary Party; returned to Cuba, 1895Cuban NationalistsMartí was killed in an uprising against the Spanish. Thousands of Cubans were forced into Spanish-controlled camps where many died.
12 The Spanish-American War Sympathy for RebelsMany people in U.S. felt sympathy for Cuban rebelsViewed Cuban struggle for freedom as similar to American RevolutionAmerican newspapers urged United States to enter warWar BeginsFebruary 1898, U.S. battleship Maine exploded in Havana’s harborMany American’s immediately assumed Spain was to blameCongress declared war; Spanish-American War beganShort WarWar disastrous for SpainSpanish army defeated in Cuba, navy fleets destroyed in Philippines, CubaU.S. won war within three months
13 Treaty ending Spanish-American War Peace TreatyTreaty ending Spanish-American WarUnited States received Puerto Rico, GuamAgreed to purchase Philippines for twenty million dollarsSpain agreed to give up Cuba, but U.S. did not want Cuba to have full independenceU.S. made Cuba a protectorate by forcing it to include Platt Amendment as part of new constitutionPlatt Amendment allowed U.S. to intervene in Cuba, approve foreign treaties, lease land at Guantánamo Bay for naval base
14 Revolt in the Philippines Status in PhilippinesNationalists in the Philippines, another Spanish colony, believed Spanish-American war would bring them independenceInstead became U.S. colonyBetrayal and RevoltRebel leader Emilio Aguinaldo, who cooperated with U.S. forces against Spanish, felt betrayedRebels revolted against U.S.No IndependenceThree years of fightingMore than 200,000 Filipinos died from combat, diseaseDid not win independenceRuling PhilippinesUntil 1935, U.S. ruled Philippines through governor appointed by U.S. president1946, Philippines granted full independence
15 The Panama Canal Panama Canal Zone Building the Canal U.S. gained control over more territory with building of Panama Canal1880s, French company had tried unsuccessfully to build canal across Isthmus of Panama, then part of Colombia1903, U.S. bought French property, equipmentColombia refused to allow U.S. to build canalU.S. President Theodore Roosevelt sent warships to support uprising against ColombiaPanama declared independent, signed treaty granting land to build canal; became Panama Canal Zone, ruled directly by U.S.Panama Canal Zone, Panama Canal builtMajor medical advances required to control effects of yellow fever, malaria on canal workersShortened sea voyage from San Francisco to New York City by about 8,000 milesBuilding the Canal
16 A Warning to Europeans Monroe Doctrine 1823, Monroe Doctrine declared Americas off limits to European imperialism, except for colonies that already existedSeen as idle threat by U.S. until end of Spanish-American WarConsiderable Financial InterestsLate 1800s, Europe and U.S. had considerable financial interests in Latin America; many nations there were deeply indebted to foreign creditors1904, European creditors threatened force to collect in Dominican RepublicRoosevelt CorollaryTo protect U.S. interests, maintain stability, Roosevelt announced the Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe DoctrineThe U.S. vowed to use military might to keep Europeans out of the Americas
17 Increasing U.S. PowerUnited States sent troops to several nations in early 1900sU.S. forces entered Haiti, the Dominican Republic, Nicaragua, Cuba to restore civil orderUnited States took control of finances in those countriesClaimed need to prevent financial chaosReality: U.S. used Roosevelt Corollary to become even more involved in political affairs of Latin American countries
19 Find the Main IdeaHow did the United States gain control over more territory in the late 1800s and early 1900s?Answer(s): gained Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines after the Spanish-American War; ruled the Panama Canal Zone after supporting an uprising against Colombia; added the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine; sent troops to Haiti, the Dominican Republic, Nicaragua, and Cuba
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