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Imperialism in Latin America

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Presentation on theme: "Imperialism in Latin America"— Presentation transcript:

1 Imperialism in Latin America
Preview Main Idea / Reading Focus Power Struggles in Mexico Faces of History: Emiliano Zapata Growing U.S. Influence Map: United States Intervention in the Caribbean Visual Study Guide / Quick Facts Video: The Impact of Imperialism

2 Imperialism in Latin America
Main Idea Imperialism in Latin America involved the United States and European nations seeking to strengthen their political and economic influence over the region. Reading Focus How did various groups struggle for power in Mexico before and during the Mexican Revolution? How did growing U.S. influence in Latin America change the region?

3 Power Struggles in Mexico
Mexico won independence from Spain in 1821 and became a republic in 1823, but political factions struggled for control of the government. Conflicts caused violence well into the next century. In the 30 years after independence, Antonio López de Santa Ana dominated Mexican politics Popular for military victories Served as president five times Early Conflicts Began career as liberal reformer As power increased, became conservative Exiled several times; returned when enemies defeated 1855, overthrown by group of reformers, exiled, never returned Santa Ana’s Rule Leader of reformers, Benito Juárez, reduced power of Catholic Church, military Conservatives outraged; civil war erupted Juárez, liberal allies triumphed Juárez’s Reforms

4 Power Struggles in Mexico
Conservatives found ally in Europe French emperor Napoleon III wanted to restore French empire in Americas 1861, sent French troops into Mexico, overthrew government, installed Austrian archduke Maximilian as emperor of Mexico The Second Mexican Empire Maximilian ended up alienating both conservatives, liberals French withdrew troops; Maximilian did not have enough support to stay in power; surrendered; executed Mexican Republic restored; Juárez reelected president, became one of Mexico’s greatest national heroes Republic Restored

5 The Mexican Revolution
Díaz’s Rule Porfirio Díaz came to power after Juarez’s death Ruled with iron fist; maintained law and order in Mexico Imprisoned opponents; used army to keep peace at any cost Modernization Díaz helped modernize Mexico by encouraging foreign investment Exports boomed; railroads expanded quickly; yet most remained poor Wealth concentrated in hands of foreign investors, Mexican elite The Mexican Revolution Díaz controlled outcome of 1910 election; jailed opponent, Francisco Madero Madero freed from jail; fled to Texas Declared himself president; called for revolution against Díaz government

6 Villa and Zapata Madero returned to Mexico, found rebellion spreading.
Two men gathered support from lowest classes, began attacking government forces Francisco “Pancho” Villa led band of rebels supporting Madero’s ideas; disgraced Diaz’s government by capturing city of Juarez, 1911 Emiliano Zapata led group of indigenous peasants, called for land reforms Díaz soon forced to resign


8 United States Involvement
More Violence Madero elected president later that year; turmoil continued Within months, army chief Victoriano Huerta seized power, imprisoned Madero Former Madero supporters opposed Huerta United States Involvement Pancho Villa’s army of small ranchers and cowboys in the north and Zapata’s peasant army in the south revolted against Huerta. 1914, United States intervened, sent Marines to occupy Veracruz Brought Mexico, U.S. close to war Huerta tried to stay in power, but resigned and fled to Spain

9 Carranza as President Venustiano Carranza declared himself president. Zapata and Villa refused support and the nation was plunged into another civil war. End of 1915, Venustiano Carranza had defeated rivals Villa continued to lead attacks against Carranza government U.S. backed Carranza; Villa retaliated, launched attack across U.S. border U.S. forces pursued Villa back across border, but unable to capture him Carranza Opposed 1920, Villa finally agreed to halt attacks, Carranza began nation building New constitution allowed the government to redistribute land, limited power of church, protected citizens’ rights Mexico still struggled with widespread poverty Carranza Reforms

10 What were the major events of the Mexican Revolution?
Sequence What were the major events of the Mexican Revolution? Answer(s): President Porfirio Diaz jailed his opponent, Francisco Madero; Madero called for a revolution; Francisco "Pancho" Villa led a band of rebels who captured city of Juárez; Emiliano Zapata called for land reforms; Diaz resigned

11 Growing U.S. Influence The United States had become a growing economic force in Latin America by the late 1800s. Economic power and political power grew together, and the United States exerted its influence and control in many ways. Island of Cuba one of Spain’s colonies in the Americas 1860s, Cuban nationalists began fighting for independence Spain exiled leaders of nationalist revolts Uprising in Cuba One exiled leader, José Martí, continued struggle for independence from New York City Poet, journalist, Martí urged Cubans to continue fight Founded Cuban Revolutionary Party; returned to Cuba, 1895 Cuban Nationalists Martí was killed in an uprising against the Spanish. Thousands of Cubans were forced into Spanish-controlled camps where many died.

12 The Spanish-American War
Sympathy for Rebels Many people in U.S. felt sympathy for Cuban rebels Viewed Cuban struggle for freedom as similar to American Revolution American newspapers urged United States to enter war War Begins February 1898, U.S. battleship Maine exploded in Havana’s harbor Many American’s immediately assumed Spain was to blame Congress declared war; Spanish-American War began Short War War disastrous for Spain Spanish army defeated in Cuba, navy fleets destroyed in Philippines, Cuba U.S. won war within three months

13 Treaty ending Spanish-American War
Peace Treaty Treaty ending Spanish-American War United States received Puerto Rico, Guam Agreed to purchase Philippines for twenty million dollars Spain agreed to give up Cuba, but U.S. did not want Cuba to have full independence U.S. made Cuba a protectorate by forcing it to include Platt Amendment as part of new constitution Platt Amendment allowed U.S. to intervene in Cuba, approve foreign treaties, lease land at Guantánamo Bay for naval base

14 Revolt in the Philippines
Status in Philippines Nationalists in the Philippines, another Spanish colony, believed Spanish-American war would bring them independence Instead became U.S. colony Betrayal and Revolt Rebel leader Emilio Aguinaldo, who cooperated with U.S. forces against Spanish, felt betrayed Rebels revolted against U.S. No Independence Three years of fighting More than 200,000 Filipinos died from combat, disease Did not win independence Ruling Philippines Until 1935, U.S. ruled Philippines through governor appointed by U.S. president 1946, Philippines granted full independence

15 The Panama Canal Panama Canal Zone Building the Canal
U.S. gained control over more territory with building of Panama Canal 1880s, French company had tried unsuccessfully to build canal across Isthmus of Panama, then part of Colombia 1903, U.S. bought French property, equipment Colombia refused to allow U.S. to build canal U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt sent warships to support uprising against Colombia Panama declared independent, signed treaty granting land to build canal; became Panama Canal Zone, ruled directly by U.S. Panama Canal Zone , Panama Canal built Major medical advances required to control effects of yellow fever, malaria on canal workers Shortened sea voyage from San Francisco to New York City by about 8,000 miles Building the Canal

16 A Warning to Europeans Monroe Doctrine
1823, Monroe Doctrine declared Americas off limits to European imperialism, except for colonies that already existed Seen as idle threat by U.S. until end of Spanish-American War Considerable Financial Interests Late 1800s, Europe and U.S. had considerable financial interests in Latin America; many nations there were deeply indebted to foreign creditors 1904, European creditors threatened force to collect in Dominican Republic Roosevelt Corollary To protect U.S. interests, maintain stability, Roosevelt announced the Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe Doctrine The U.S. vowed to use military might to keep Europeans out of the Americas

17 Increasing U.S. Power United States sent troops to several nations in early 1900s U.S. forces entered Haiti, the Dominican Republic, Nicaragua, Cuba to restore civil order United States took control of finances in those countries Claimed need to prevent financial chaos Reality: U.S. used Roosevelt Corollary to become even more involved in political affairs of Latin American countries


19 Find the Main Idea How did the United States gain control over more territory in the late 1800s and early 1900s? Answer(s): gained Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines after the Spanish-American War; ruled the Panama Canal Zone after supporting an uprising against Colombia; added the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine; sent troops to Haiti, the Dominican Republic, Nicaragua, and Cuba


21 Video The Impact of Imperialism
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