Presentation on theme: "France's Policy in Libya Historical, Military, and Current Events Perspectives."— Presentation transcript:
France's Policy in Libya Historical, Military, and Current Events Perspectives
Historical Perspectives ● Libya - Italian Colony from 1911-1943 ○ Administered by the British and French until 1951 ● Constitutional Monarchy beginning in 1951 ○ Coup d’état in 1969 led by Muammar Gaddafi ● Libyan Arab Jamahiriya ○ Jamahiriya meant to be a form of direct democracy ○ Absence of political parties ○ The Green Book ○ Gaddafi remained dictator in reality
History continued ● Arab Spring spread into Libya in February 2011 ● Libyan government reacts violently ● Scope of conflict expands quickly ○ Government versus rebels ● Pro Gaddafi forces gain advantage leading up to March 2011 ● Rebel forces surrounded
France and Libya- Economic Relations ● OPEC Member ● NOC-National Oil Corporation ● Natural Gas ● Oil ● Trade deals
France's Recognition of Libyan Civil War ● France, England as first countries to recognize Libyan rebels and National Transitional Council ○ Oil; repairing France's "brand" in M.E. ● US followed suit, less of high-profile role ● European Union held back; saw France as grandstanding
Actions to Rally Support ● March 2011- Sarkozy and Cameron schedule EU summit for all 27 members to discuss Libya ○ Rhetoric: ■ "This deliberate use of military force against civilians is utterly unacceptable. As warned by the security council, these acts may amount to crimes against humanity. All those involved in deciding, planning or executing such actions must know that they will be held accountable." (Evidence for legal backing via ICC terminology) Joint Letter by Cameron and Sarkozy ■ "I think it is the moment for Europe to understand we should show real ambition about recognizing that what's happening in north Africa is a democratic awakening." (Grand language suggesting the need to be on the "right side" of history) ○ Legal Cover for Action: ■ Sarkozy mentions use of chemical weapons/air strikes justifies military action under Geneva Convention; Sarkozy calls for targeted air-strikes ○ Sarkozy's March 20th Meeting
Results ● UN Security Council establishes no-fly zone March 17 ● Commencement of NATO action- March 19 ● NATO Naval Blockade- March 23
Military Involvement Pre Military Involvement ● UN Resolution freezing Gaddafi's assets due to human rights violations New PM Alain Juppé ● More aggressive than Alliot-Marie ● Laid down conditions for a no-fly zone then once violence increased decided to change policy
Alain Juppé's Guidelines for French Involvement Stipulated that for a legitimate military campaign ● Needed UN Resolution ○ UN Security Council Resolution 1973 ● Not be a NATO Operation ● Arab League acceptance ● At least symbolic Arab military stipulation Policy seen as a return to French dominance in the spread of democracy and gave Sarkozy a boos in the poles
Opération Harmattan Key People ● Nicolas Sarkozy, Alain Juppé, Edouard Guillaud, Elrick Irastoraza, Jean-Paul Paloméros & Perre-François Forissier France had lead in role of Libyan intervention Goal to enforce a no-fly zone France recognizes National Transitional Council as legitimate leaders of Libya Conference in Paris March, 19 2011 ● French started bombing with French Dassault Rafale
The End of Military Involvement France has time limit on troop deployment, so had to vote to extend military presence ● Very little protest in vote, only Communists voted against it On October 27th, after Gaddafi was killed, NATO voted to end occupation and pulled out October 31st
Future Outlook ● National Transitional Council ● International Recognition
Questions ● Was France justified in militarily intervening in Libya? ● Do you think the United States should have played a larger role in the NATO mission or was it sufficient?
Works Cited ● Willsher, Kim. "Libya and France Sign £200m Arms Deal | World News | Guardian.co.uk." Latest News, Sport and Comment from the Guardian | The Guardian. 3 Aug. 2007. Web. 13 Nov. 2011.. ● Stratton, Allegra. "France Signs Â€10bn Trade Deal with Libya | World News | Guardian.co. uk." Latest News, Sport and Comment from the Guardian | The Guardian. 10 Dec. 2007. Web. 13 Nov. 2011.. ● Mobbs, Philip M. "The Mineral Industry of Libya." Web. 13 Nov. 2011. .