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1 Drafting the Federal Constitution. 2 Shay's Rebellion Poor Massachusetts farmers rebelled because they were seeking; Poor Massachusetts farmers rebelled.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Drafting the Federal Constitution. 2 Shay's Rebellion Poor Massachusetts farmers rebelled because they were seeking; Poor Massachusetts farmers rebelled."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Drafting the Federal Constitution

2 2 Shay's Rebellion Poor Massachusetts farmers rebelled because they were seeking; Poor Massachusetts farmers rebelled because they were seeking; equitable political representation equitable political representation tax reform tax reform The abolition of imprisonment for debt The abolition of imprisonment for debt It was led by Daniel Shay and primarily consisted of posturing and parading through towns and villages. It was led by Daniel Shay and primarily consisted of posturing and parading through towns and villages. The rebels were able to operate largely unimpeded through much of the fall and winter of 1786 and The rebels were able to operate largely unimpeded through much of the fall and winter of 1786 and A militia defeated the main body of rebels, largely ending the rebellion. A militia defeated the main body of rebels, largely ending the rebellion. Shay and other rebel leaders fled to Vermont, where they were captured and sentenced to be hanged. Shay and other rebel leaders fled to Vermont, where they were captured and sentenced to be hanged. They were later pardoned by Massachusetts Governor John Hancock. They were later pardoned by Massachusetts Governor John Hancock.

3 3 Mt. Vernon Conference In 1785 representatives from Maryland and Virginia met at the Mt. Vernon estate of George Washington to discuss a trade dispute involving the navigation of the Potomac River. In 1785 representatives from Maryland and Virginia met at the Mt. Vernon estate of George Washington to discuss a trade dispute involving the navigation of the Potomac River. The delegates resolved far broader issues of trade and mutual policy between the two states. The delegates resolved far broader issues of trade and mutual policy between the two states. The General Assembly of Virginia proposed a broader trade conclave to be held in Annapolis, Maryland the following year. The General Assembly of Virginia proposed a broader trade conclave to be held in Annapolis, Maryland the following year. Washington’s Mt. Vernon Estate

4 4 Annapolis Convention Some Americans began contemplating radical changes because they were unhappy with the impotence of the Articles of Confederation. Some Americans began contemplating radical changes because they were unhappy with the impotence of the Articles of Confederation. The Annapolis Convention was organized to address issues related to commerce. The Annapolis Convention was organized to address issues related to commerce. James Madison and Alexander Hamilton used the meeting to advocate a new form of federal government. James Madison and Alexander Hamilton used the meeting to advocate a new form of federal government. The Maryland State House above was the site of the Annapolis Convention

5 5 Constitutional Convention 74 delegates were selected, but only 55 eventually came to Philadelphia for the convention. 74 delegates were selected, but only 55 eventually came to Philadelphia for the convention. George Washington was elected president of the convention. George Washington was elected president of the convention. Talk quickly shifted from ways to modify the Articles of Confederation to ways to replace the Articles. Talk quickly shifted from ways to modify the Articles of Confederation to ways to replace the Articles. Debate centered on a democratic plan offered by Virginia and a more constrained plan offered by New Jersey. Debate centered on a democratic plan offered by Virginia and a more constrained plan offered by New Jersey. Secrecy was paramount to the delegates, because of this little is known about happened inside of the convention. Secrecy was paramount to the delegates, because of this little is known about happened inside of the convention.

6 6 The Virginia Plan James Madison argued that no confederacy could endure if it acted upon states only and not directly upon individuals. James Madison argued that no confederacy could endure if it acted upon states only and not directly upon individuals. He outlined a new system of government, the basis of the "Virginia Plan" presented in the convention by Edmund Jennings Randolph. He outlined a new system of government, the basis of the "Virginia Plan" presented in the convention by Edmund Jennings Randolph. That Madison and Randolph were able to enter the Constitutional Convention with a plan of government conferred an enormous political advantage. That Madison and Randolph were able to enter the Constitutional Convention with a plan of government conferred an enormous political advantage. The Virginia Plan became the basis for the early debate on a new structure of government. The Virginia Plan became the basis for the early debate on a new structure of government. James Madison

7 7 The New Jersey Plan New Jersey delegate William Paterson introduced a competing plan designed to protect the power of the small states. New Jersey delegate William Paterson introduced a competing plan designed to protect the power of the small states. Paterson’s plan maintained many aspects of the Articles of Confederation. Paterson’s plan maintained many aspects of the Articles of Confederation. It also gave equal representation in the legislature to all states regardless of population. It also gave equal representation in the legislature to all states regardless of population. William Paterson

8 8 The Great Compromise The Constitutional Convention was deadlocked between supporters of the two plans. The Constitutional Convention was deadlocked between supporters of the two plans. The larger states preferred the Virginia Plan while, the smaller states preferred the New Jersey Plan. The larger states preferred the Virginia Plan while, the smaller states preferred the New Jersey Plan. Connecticut delegate Roger Sherman Roger Sherman eventually proposed a compromise that was acceptable to both factions. Connecticut delegate Roger Sherman Roger Sherman eventually proposed a compromise that was acceptable to both factions. The Great Compromise, retained the bicameral legislature envisioned by Madison, but apportioned the lower house by population and granted equal representation to all states in the upper house. The Great Compromise, retained the bicameral legislature envisioned by Madison, but apportioned the lower house by population and granted equal representation to all states in the upper house. Roger Sherman

9 9 3/5 Compromise With it decided that the lower house would be apportioned by population another difficulty arose for the convention. With it decided that the lower house would be apportioned by population another difficulty arose for the convention. Slave states wanted their slaves counted as population, despite having denied them all political rights. Slave states wanted their slaves counted as population, despite having denied them all political rights. Free states saw this as unacceptable because slave states would be able to dominate the congress. Free states saw this as unacceptable because slave states would be able to dominate the congress. James Wilson proposed that all unfree labor should count as 3/5 of a person for apportionment purposes. James Wilson proposed that all unfree labor should count as 3/5 of a person for apportionment purposes. James Wilson

10 10 Drafting the Constitution The new constitution went through several drafts. The new constitution went through several drafts. Charles Pinckney submitted a plan that had considerable influence on the final draft. Charles Pinckney submitted a plan that had considerable influence on the final draft. Alexander Hamilton, a known Federalist, was far-reaching in both his influence and his involvement in the process. Alexander Hamilton, a known Federalist, was far-reaching in both his influence and his involvement in the process.

11 11 The Constitution On 17 September 1787, the document was presented to the convention and signed by 39 of the 55 delegates. On 17 September 1787, the document was presented to the convention and signed by 39 of the 55 delegates. With the endorsement of the convention, the constitution was sent to the states for ratification. With the endorsement of the convention, the constitution was sent to the states for ratification. The states were instructed to either ratify or reject the constitution in its entirety. The states were instructed to either ratify or reject the constitution in its entirety. Contrary to the Articles of Confederation, which required unanimous consent from the states for any change in the national government, the constitution required only the consent of 9 states to be ratified. Contrary to the Articles of Confederation, which required unanimous consent from the states for any change in the national government, the constitution required only the consent of 9 states to be ratified.

12 12 Media Citations Slide 2: 4/topics3and415.jpg Slide 2: 4/topics3and415.jpg 4/topics3and415.jpg 4/topics3and415.jpg Slide 3: Slide 3: Slide 4: g Slide 4: g g g Slide 5: Slide 5: Slide 6: n_2.jpg Slide 6: n_2.jpg n_2.jpg n_2.jpg Slide 7: Slide 7: Slide 8: Slide 8: Slide 9: Slide 9: Slide 10: Slide 10: Slide 11: natures.jpg Slide 11: natures.jpg natures.jpg natures.jpg


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