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Islam in India and Southeast Asia

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Presentation on theme: "Islam in India and Southeast Asia"— Presentation transcript:

1 Islam in India and Southeast Asia

2 Islam in South Asia Overview
711 Muslims conquer Sind 700’s-900’s some coastal communities such as the Labbes convert with Arab merchants 1020’s Ghaznavids establish control over Afghanistan and NW India 1192 Ghurids conquer Lahore and Delhi  Era of the Delhi Sultanate Tamerlane invades… Delhi destroyed


4 The Ghaznavids Mahmud of Ghazna (d. 1030): Turkic nomadic military leader whose father established control of Samanid outpost in Ghazna The Ghaznavids raided into the Punjab and eventually that area became the basis of their rule after the 1050’s Patronized Persian poetry

5 The Delhi Sultanate Defeat the Ghaznavids in 1192 – more rebel Turkish guards! Mamluks: Qutb al-Din Aybak was slave of last Ghurid Razia Sultan (r ) Islam introduced to Kashmir in 1313 with Shah Mir of Swat Destroyed by Tamerlane

6 Conversion Artisans and petty merchants first to convert
In rural areas converts retained Hindu customs and socialized within their caste Bengal sees continuation of customs like seeking auspices from Hindu holymen

7 Jizya Muhammad b. al-Qasim excepted the Brahmins, who collected it from others. Delhi sultans varied in their policies Akbar abolished it; but scholars understood this as being due to the fact that so many Hindu soldiers served in the army Aurangzeb re-imposed it

8 Syncretism & Conflict From Ghaznavids on Hindu soldiers used in Muslim armies Delhi Sultanates main bureaucrats are Hindus A cast of Brahmins called Husainis fast Ramadan, call Muhammad a Hindu avatar But both Hindus and Muslims can hold stereotypes of uncleanliness for the other In 1320’s Khusraw Khan rebels against the Delhi sultans and massacres Muslim women and children… puts idols in mosques

9 1700’s see further polarization
Revivalists like Shah Wali Allah seek to reconstitute pure Arabian Islam against Hindu practices Shaykh Ahmad Sirhindi (d. 1624) of the Naqshbandiyya rejects syncretism (rejects Akbar’s heresy), condemns Hinduism as Kufr Vs. Qadiriyya saint Mirza Jani Janan (d. 1780) who considers Vedas inspired scriptures and Hindus to be People of the Book / idolatry as means of focusing on God… also Dara Shikoh and Upanishads as wellspring of monotheism

10 Major Sufi Orders in India
Chistiyya: founded by Muin al-Din Chishti (d. 1193) in India Emphasizes Shariah compliance and Hadith, but… Ecstatic music and dance in rituals Pioneers of Qawwali music at shrines Naqshbandiyya: founded by Baha’ al-Din Naqshbandi (d. 1389) found throughout Asia and the Balkans Shariah complaint emphasis – revivalist even Shuns music and dance, silent dhikr Vs. Shattariyya Sufi order whose devotees lived in the forests like Yogis and derived liturgical practices from Yoga

11 Qawwali Music Draws on musical traditions of India, Persian and Arabic music Songs in Urdu, Persian Addresses themes of the Prophet, Ali, God and love songs

12 Performed by Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan (d. 1997)
Haqq Ali Haqq Performed by Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan (d. 1997) From translated by Mohibb Uddin Ahmad Ali is the master of all, I am the slave of Ali thousands of lives are to be sacrificed for Ali Sometimes the wall shakes, sometimes the door trembles listening the name of Ali, the fort of Khaibar trembles even now King of the brave Ali, Ali master Ali Who implanted the flag of faith in the rocks who challenged Marhab** and defeated him Ali, Ali master Ali My heart chants this this is the name that is true this is the name that removes sufferings auspiciousness of this name opened the secrets of being King of the brave there is no one except Ali Ali is the lion of God

13 Ali, Ali master Ali My body chants Ali, so does my tongue if I die, then write Ali on my shroud Truth, truth, Ali, Ali master Ali Without the love of Ali, desired is not fulfilled not even the returns for the prayers O slaves of God listen carefully, by God !! one who does not realize Ali does not realize God Don't search for anything now, match the eternal search match the footprints of the desired destination with guide to get Ali is like getting a house of God searching for God too, we found Him in Ali's house Sight of Ali is itself is prayer, so said the Prophet Ali is the soul, body and life of the Prophet why wouldn't be Ali 'the lion of God' be the hand of God the king of all warriors-Ali is intended in every favor/gift just as there is no one like Mohammad (PBUH) no other Ali could never have born 'Bedam' these are the five reasons of the existence of the universe: Fatima, Hasan, Hussain, Mustafaa, Ali

14 Islam in SE Asia Overview
1200’s some Sumatran port cities become Muslim, the straits of Malacca Islamized By 1500 Islam a major force in Malaysian archipelago


16 Trade or Chinese Muslim Pirates?
Islam spreads in coastal communities along trade routes Acheh: in 1292 Marco Polo describes flourishing Muslim community their ruled by a sultan Malacca: develops around 1400, straits are key trading channel

17 Links to India and Yemen
Part of Islamicate civilization Arabic language as language of high culture and administration Shafi school is dominant Links to Yemeni Sufism Links to Indian Islamic scholarship

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