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Presentation on theme: "MR. LIPMAN’S APUS POWERPOINT CHAPTER 27"— Presentation transcript:

The Expansion of the Empire IMPERIALISM

2 Keys to the Chapter America looks for overseas markets to sell its products from a growing economy and to improve standing in the world. Europe races to establish additional colonies and America joins the race. Hawaii Cuba {Teller Amendment and later Platt} Philippines

3 Puerto Rico China Colombia / Panama Panama Canal Roosevelt Corollary Dominican Republic Caribbean = “Yankee Lake” or “Lake America” Japan-Russian War (1904) Yellow Press (Sensationalism)

4 World Colonial Empires, 1900

5 “Grab-Bag”

6 HAWAII 1893 – whites revolt against queen with aid from US military.
Asians imported to work on white plantations; came to greatly outnumber both whites and natives 1890 – McKinley Tariff raised on sugar and hurt white planters in Hawaii who, led by Sanford Dole, push for annexation to make them exempt from tariffs. Annexation opposed by Queen Liliuokalani and huge majority of Hawaiian people 1893 – whites revolt against queen with aid from US military. Cleveland refused to annex Hawaii but McKinley will later say okay

7 Cuba 1895 – Cuban people rebel against Spanish
Economy crippled by 1894 US tariff against sugar US had $50 million invested and $100 million in annual trade with Cuba so aligns with rebels Cuba seen as critical for controlling Gulf of Mexico (and therefore area of future Panama Canal)

8 Out of the Frying Pan of “Spanish Misrule,” into the Fire of “Anarchy,” Unless the US Steps In
The Duty of the Hour – To Save Her Not Only from Spain but from a Worse Fate Out of the Frying Pan, into the Fire Cuba is in the frying pan of “Spanish Misrule” She will descend to the fire of “Anarchy” unless the US steps in to help her.

9 Victims of Spanish Concentration Camps in Cuba

10 “yellow journalism” (Hearst and Pulitzer) use Cuban rebellion to sell newspapers with “scoops”
“You furnish the pictures and I’ll furnish the war.” (Hearst)

11 Maine incident Early 1898 – USS Maine to Havana to evacuate Americans in case of hostilities February 15, 1898 – blown up, killing 260 sailors US public demanded war even though no proof explosion had anything to do with Spain 1976 Navy investigation finds cause was a spontaneous explosion in a coal bunker near a storage area for gunpowder

12 Wreckage of the Maine {Battle cry would become remember the Maine}

13 February 1898 – asst. secy of the Navy T. R
February 1898 – asst. secy of the Navy T. R. ordered Commodore Dewey to attack Philippines because of “attack on Maine” (no declaration of war at that time) McKinley backed up Roosevelt’s order after the fact War declared against Spain in April, 1898 May 1898 – Dewey attacks at Manila & easily wins naval battle but needs land forces August – US reinforcements captured Manila, with help of Filipino nationalists who want freedom from Spain

14 April 11, 1898 – McKinley asks for war
McKinley’s dilemma McKinley wanted Spain out of Cuba, without war, and might have gotten it eventually but many Americans wanted immediate action and public opinion forces him to act. April 11, 1898 – McKinley asks for war Claimed US would free Cuba from Spain Teller Amendment – adopted by Congress with declaration of war US promised to free Cuba so no threat it would become a colony

15 Dewey’s celebrated victory in Manila leads to July 7, 1898 – resolution annexing Hawaii
US wanted to prevent Japan from taking Hawaii while distracted in Philippines Hawaii necessary for re-supply and fueling station for US Pacific fleet

16 The Importance of Hawaii

July 1 Rough Riders (organized by Roosevelt) charged up Kettle Hill, taking heavy casualties July 3 – naval battle & Spanish navy destroyed by US fleet (old ships can’t compete) Fall of fleet led to surrender of Santiago July – August – US also took Puerto Rico from Spain August 12 – Spain signed cease fire with US US lost 400+ to battles but 5,000 to diseases

18 Late 1898 – negotiations with Spain in Paris (Treaty of Paris)
Cuba freed US got Guam Also gets Puerto Rico Also gets Philippines but problem is what to do with it. If left to themselves anarchy or foreign power might take it. McKinley decides to take the islands and give them their freedom later but angers natives who believe they were promised freedom (anger lasts until 1946 independence)

19 McKinley. Is He a Despot? American forces lose 4K and natives lost 600K in battles to stop independence movement Is he to be a Despot? Napoleon and Julius Caesar look on as McKinley subdues a Filipino (very racist caricature).

20 Well, I hardly know which to take first!
McKinley as waiter to Uncle Sam Serves “Bill of Fare” of Cuba, Puerto Rico, Philippines, Sandwich Islands (Hawaii)

21 Anti-imperialists’ arguments
USA giving up tradition of anti-imperialism Filipino thirst for freedom Annexation would violate “consent of the governed” in Declaration of Independence Despotism outside of US might bring despotism to US Expensive military adventures overseas US would become involved in problems in Asia Imperialists’ arguments Patriotism and nationalism US should “civilize” backwards nations Trade profits will increase with Philippines “White Man’s Burden” (Rudyard Kipling)

22 Foraker Act (1900) – gave Puerto Rico limited popular government
Puerto Rico’s limbo status Neither a state nor a territory; not much chance of eventual independence Foraker Act (1900) – gave Puerto Rico limited popular government 1917 – Puerto Ricans given citizenship, but not self-rule

23 Insular Cases (1901) Did the Constitution follow the flag?
(Did American rights and laws apply with full force in conquered territories (Puerto Rico,Philippines)? Divided Supreme Court ruled that Constitution was not necessarily in force in conquered territories and thus natives don’t get all the rights that U.S. citizens have.

24 Cuba 1902 – US withdraws- honoring Teller Amendment
Before US withdrew, Cuba forced to add Platt Amendment to their Constitution Cuba can’t make treaties that would compromise their independence without US approval Can’t take on debt that couldn’t be repaid US could intervene with troops when it saw fit US could lease naval stations (Guantanamo) Platt Amendment provisions ended in 1934, except for Guantanamo Base leasing

25 US becomes world power replacing Spain
Political cartoon scanned from 1898 book re Spanish American War. "Ten Thousand Miles From Tip to Tip" meaning the extention of United States domination (symbolized by a bald eagle) from Puerto Rico to the Philippines. The cartoon contrasts this with a map of the smaller United States of 100 years earlier in 1798.


27 1894 - China defeated by Japan
Europe (especially Russia and Germany) moved in to take advantage of China’s weakened condition (trade agreements and spheres of influence) US opposed to European intervention in China Churches wanted access to Chinese converts Merchants wanted trade with China US public inflamed

28 China “Carved Up” By European Powers
England, Germany, Russia (or possibly France), United States, and Japan Carve up “Chine” – China – into “spheres of influence” China protests in background

29 1900 - the Boxer Rebellion by Chinese nationalists
Summer Open Door note Issued by Secretary of State John Hay Europe must respect Chinese rights and fair competition in their spheres of influence All great powers except Russia agreed (hesitatingly) to Open Door note the Boxer Rebellion by Chinese nationalists Call to “kill foreign devils” and 200 foreigners and 1000s of Chinese Christians killed Rebels laid siege to Beijing (Peking)

30 1900 - 18,000 soldiers in multinational force (including US) put down the rebellion
Allies forced China to pay $333 million second Open Door note issued by Hay Chinese territorial integrity to be upheld Incorporated in Nine-Power Treaty (1922) Violated by Japan (when invaded Manchuria in 1930s)

31 McKinley for President 2nd term in 1900

32 McKinley vs. Bryan 1900 imperialism against anti-imperialism
Dems attack Republican overseas imperialism McKinley had enslaved Filipinos Bryan traveled across US but McKinley stays on front porch- too dignified to campaign Election of 1900: McKinley wins big People voted for McKinley because of prosperity and protectionism, not for (or against) imperialism

33 September 1901 - McKinley killed by an anarchist in Buffalo, New York
Roosevelt became youngest president (at age 42) Born to wealthy family in New York Was weak and asthmatic as boy, but exercised fiercely to overcome physical weaknesses Graduated from Harvard & published many books Worked as ranch owner and cowboy

34 Roosevelt as politician
Loved outdoors and meeting people Attacked weakness (physically and militarily) Motto was “Speak softly and carry a big stick” Always wanted to be the center of attention Roosevelt as president Little respect for checks and balances of US system President must lead the nation and other branches

35 Building the Panama Canal
Need for a canal across isthmus of Panama Increase strength of the US Navy and help defend recently-acquired territory (Hawaii, Philippines, Puerto Rico) Clayton-Bulwer Treaty between US and Britain US no exclusive rights to build canal Hay-Pauncefote Treaty between US and Britain Gave US right to build and fortify canal area

36 Issue is where to build the canal?
American experts favored Nicaragua French had tried before (1880s) across Panama French offered to sell equipment to US for $40 million (previously had wanted $109 million) June Congress decided on Panama route (partly to get the French equipment) Panamanians had history of rebellion & French fear losing $40 million payment from US November 3, Panamanians rebel with French help US navy ships prevented Columbian troops from crossing isthmus to put down rebellion

37 Roosevelt makes Panama a US outpost
Panama recognized by US only 3 days after revolution 15 days later - Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty signed in Washington US paid $10 million (with annual payment of $250,000), but US gets 10 mile wide strip of land US paid French company $40 M. for its equipment


39 Building the canal Began in 1904 & cost $400M Many troubles - labor, landslides, diseases Col. Gorgas used pesticides to eliminate dangerous tropical diseases Col. Goethals completed canal in 1914

40 The Roosevelt Corollary
Debt problems in Latin America Some countries behind in payments to Europe Led to attacks by Europeans and their belief they could colonize the nations of S. America Roosevelt feared Germans or British using debt as excuse to stay in S.A. (violating Monroe Doctrine) The Roosevelt Corollary If future problems in Latin America with paying off debts, the US would intervene US would take over parts of governments and pay off the debts, keeping Europe out US became “policeman” of Latin America 1905 USA took over management of tariff collection in Dominican Republic to pay down its debts

41 The Big Stick in the Caribbean

42 1904 - Russo-Japanese War broke out
Russia wanted access to ports Japan launched surprise attack on Russian fleet Japan then beat Russians in series of battles Important because Europeans did not believe they could be beaten by non-Europeans Both Sides turn to T.R. to negotiate a truce Roosevelt meets with Russia and Japan at Portsmouth, New Hampshire {Wins Nobel} Settlement satisfied neither side

43 Early 1900s - new wave of Japanese immigrants came to America
Escape war (with Russia) and high taxes Californians feared “yellow peril” San Francisco school board ordered segregation of all Asians into special schools Done to free more space for whites after earthquake and fire Japan insulted and newspapers lead talk of war

44 1908 - Root-Takahira agreement
the Great White Fleet sent out by Roosevelt Sent 16 white battleships around the world Greeted warmly in Japan with thousands of schoolchildren waving US flags Root-Takahira agreement US and Japan promised to respect each other’s territorial possessions in Pacific and uphold Open Door policy in China


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