2Reconstruction: What is the Best Way to Heal the Wounds of War? Civil War ended on April 9, 1865Lincoln’s goal was to save a nation – NOT to end slavery.Lincoln did not wish to punish the South, but to heal as a nation.Lincoln was assassinated.
3Andrew JohnsonPresident Andrew Johnson elected after Lincoln’s assassinationWished to follow Lincoln’s policy about slavery. He felt making former slaves citizens would only increase the anger between the North and the South.He believed in leniency toward the South but lacked diplomacy.
4Radical RepublicansA group of politicians who wanted the emancipation of slaves to be the main goal of the Civil War.Supported Lincoln until they discovered that slavery was not his main goal.Supported Johnson until they discovered that he planned to follow Lincoln’s reconstruction plans.Worked with Congress to keep all of Johnson’s legislation from passing. Passed their legislation despite Johnson’s vetoes.
5The Reconstruction Period – Lasted for 10 years after the Civil War A tug of war between Congress and the President took place.The Radicals divided the South into five military districts ruled by the U.S. Army.Tennessee was readmitted into the Union in 1866.The remaining 10 rebel states had to formally accept the 14th and 15th amendments in order to be readmitted.These amendments allowed blacks to become citizens with the right to vote and hold office.The new governments in the states were a combination of blacks, “carpet-baggers" (northerners who had moved to the South for investments or political opportunities), and “scalawags” (southerners who embraced the cause of the Radical Republicans).
6Six Viewpoints on How to Rebuild the South White southerners began to use fraud, intimidation, and violence to get back the control of their own state governments. By the time the last US army troops were withdrawn from the South in 1877, the Democratic party was back in control. There was terrible bitterness in both the North and the South.
7President Andrew Johnson’s Viewpoint Follow Lincoln’s policy.Be lenient to the South.Do not make blacks full citizens.Let’s try to get along and repair our relationships.
8Radical Northern Republican Viewpoint Thaddeus Stevens was the leader of the Radical Republicans.Pass the Reconstruction Act so that blacks have the right to vote and may run for office.Punish rebel leaders.Put the South under military rule to enforce the Reconstruction Act.
9Southern White Democratic Viewpoint The governor of South Carolina refused to ratify the 13th Amendment.Southerners felt the government was meant for whites only.They began to pass “Black Codes” aimed at returning blacks to their former slave labor on the plantations.
10Carpetbaggers’ & Scalawags’ Viewpoint Carpetbaggers were Northerners who came to the South to invest in rebuilding the South.They also felt that they should be able to be in Congress in the South.Some came for good reasons – to actually help the South and the newly freed blacks.The carpetbag, however, was a symbol of opportunists who were filling their “bags” at the expense of the South.Scalawags were influential Southerners who supported Radical Republicans and carpetbaggers. Scalawags means “worthless person” or “scoundrel”. They were considered traitors by most white southerners.
11Former Slave Viewpoint Most backed the Republican point of view allowing blacks to become citizens and vote.Blanche Kelso Bruce was born as a slave and served a full term in the Senate.
12What Went Wrong with Reconstruction? No way for southerners to earn and circulate money.Blacks had no money or land.Plantations were too large for white southerners to run by themselves.Socially the white southerners did not change their attitudes about African Americans.
13Robert E. Lee April 9, 1865, the Confederacy surrenders. Was the Commander-in-chief of the Confederacy.Graduated from the US Military Academy at West Point with honorsFought in the Mexican-American WarOriginally asked to be the leader of the UnionHis home state was Virginia and he could not bring himself to fight against it.Spent his last years as president of Washington College in Lexington, Virginia, in the hopes that he could inspire some young men into helping recover the country from the horrors of the war.His birthday is a legal holiday in most Southern states today.
14American Character -- Ingenuity George Washington Carver Former slave on the Carver farmTaught at a college and experimented with plantsInvented chili sauce, Worcestershire sauce, dried milk, paints, ink dyes, bleach, shoe polish, peanut butterEncouraged southerners to plant crops of peanutsInvented 324 uses for peanuts
15The Gasoline EngineNikolaus August Otto obtained a patent on his new gasoline engine in 1866.
16Freedmen’s BureauWas a federal agency set up near the end of the Civil War to distribute clothes, food and fuel to the poor of the SouthRan schools for black childrenIn charge of land abandoned or taken away from the ConfederacyLands were to be rented to freedmenLands were returned to Confederate landowners
17Laws of Reconstruction 13th Amendment – Abolished slavery14th Amendment – Gives former slaves citizenship15th Amendment – Allows black the right to vote