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United States History Chapter 18

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1 United States History Chapter 18
Higher Order Thinking Skills Homework

2 What is the policy of imperialism?
1. Explain the economic and cultural factors that fueled the growth of American imperialism. What is the policy of imperialism? When stronger nations use their military or political power to exercise their will over weaker nations, usually for the purpose of gaining raw materials and markets for their industrial production. What were the major factors that contributed to the growth of American imperialism? Desire for Military Strength Thirst for new markets in which to sell goods A belief in cultural superiority

3 2. Describe how the United States acquired Alaska
2. Describe how the United States acquired Alaska. Summarize how the United States took over the Hawaiian Islands. Why was the purchase of Alaska significant? It got the Russian presence out of the Western Hemisphere. The region (purchased for two cents an acre) was rich in timber, mineral (gold in the Klondike Mountains), and (discovered later) oil. What groups were interested in increasing America’s presence in Hawaii? Why? American Sugar Planters, they did most of their business with the United States The American Military, they saw the importance of Hawaii as a refueling station and as the home base of the United States Pacific Fleet. How did Hawaii eventually come under the control of the United States? The Sugar Planters, led by Sanford Dole, deposed Queen Liliuokalani. The Republic of Hawaii (The Pineapple Republic) was formed Hawaii voted to be annexed by the United States.

4 3. Contrast American opinions regarding the Cuban revolt against Spain
Why did some Americans have strong economic interest in Cuba? American Capitalists began investing millions of dollars in large Sugar Cane plantations in Cuba. Why did Some Americans support Spanish control of Cuba, while others sympathized with the rebels? Business leaders wanted the government to support Spain, which would protect their investments in Cuba. Many average Americans supported Cuba’s bid for Independence linking the cry for “Cuba Libre” to “Give me Liberty or give me death”.

5 4. Identify events that escalated the conflict between the United States and Spain.
How did the Spanish react to the uprising in Cuba? They sent General Victoriano Weyler to crush the rebellion. He herded the people into concentration camps where many died from hunger and disease. He then launched search and destroy missions justifying that only rebels now lived in the countryside. What factors helped to arouse American feelings of animosity toward Spain? The Yellow Press stirred America’s emotions by printing articles detailing (in many cases exaggerated) stories of Spanish Atrocities.

6 5. Trace the course of the Spanish-American War and its results.
Where was the Spanish-American War fought? Cuba (Caribbean) Puerto Rico (Caribbean) The Philippine Islands (Pacific) What were the consequences of the war for Spain and the United States? Spain was diminished as a World Power and lost much of its overseas empire. The United States was elevated to the status of World Power and had acquired a vast overseas empire that would serve as a source of raw materials, as new markets for our goods, and as refueling stations for the Navy. Why did the Treaty of Paris cause such debate among Americans? The U.S. faced the moral dilemma of being a nation founded on liberty, now holding dominion over weaker nations.

7 6. Describe U.S. involvement in Puerto Rico and in Cuba.
What was the significance of the Foraker Act? Ended military rule in Puerto Rico and established a civilian government for the Island nation. What did the Platt Amendment state? Cuba would be independent and could sign no treaty that would limit that independence. The U.S. had the right to intervene in Cuba if necessary. The U.S. would establish a Naval Base at Guantanimo Bay. Why did the United States wish to attain a strong influence in Cuba? To protect American investments in Cuban sugar, tobacco, and mining interests.

8 7. Identify causes and effects of the Philippine-American War.
Why did many Filipinos feel betrayed by the United States? They felt as though the U.S. had promised them independence and then were denying it. How was the Philippine-American War a costly one for both the Philippines and the United States? Loss of life on both sides. It cost the U.S. $400 Million to fight the war, 20x what it cost to purchase the Philippines from Spain.

9 8. Explain the purpose of the Open Door Policy in China.
Why did the western powers seek to establish spheres of influence in China? It gave them exclusive trading rights in the potentially rich “China Market” What were the Open Door notes? Letters sent by John Hay to the European powers carving up China telling them that they needed to open their trade rights to America (what becomes known as the “Open Door” Policy). What were the causes and consequences of the Boxer Rebellion? The Boxer Rebellion was caused by Chinese resentment of “foreign devils” running their country. The U.S. pledged to safeguard for the world equal and impartial trade in all parts of the Chinese Empire.

10 9. Summarize the views regarding U.S. imperialism.
What did the reelection of William McKinley seem to indicate about the American public’s view of imperialism? It confirmed that a majority of Americans supported policies of imperialism. He soundly defeated William Jennings Bryan who was a staunch opponent of imperialism. What view of imperialism did supporters of the Anti-imperialism League take? That it was wrong for the United States to rule over other peoples without their consent.

11 10. Explain how Theodore Roosevelt’s foreign policy promoted American power around the world.
What role did President Theodore Roosevelt play in ending the Russo-Japanese War? He acted as an arbitrator to mediate a peace agreement between Russia and Japan. What events led to the building of the Panama Canal? As part of Roosevelt’s “Gunboat Diplomacy” 12 U.S. Warships were sent to Panama, which then declared its independence from Colombia. Marines came ashore and cut off all Railway access for Colombian reinforcements that would attempt to crush the rebellion. The U.S. and Panama then signed a treaty giving the U.S. control of the Panama Canal. What did the Roosevelt Corollary state? That the U.S. had the right to intervene in the affairs of Latin America as an “International Policeman” protecting the interests of the U.S. What was dollar diplomacy? U.S. Banks would assume the debts of Latin American Nations so that they would be in debt to the U.S. rather than to Europe.

12 11. Describe how Woodrow Wilson’s missionary diplomacy ensured U. S
11. Describe how Woodrow Wilson’s missionary diplomacy ensured U.S. dominance in Latin America. What was Woodrow Wilson’s “missionary diplomacy”? A policy by which the U.S. would only recognized pro-American, democratic governments in Latin America. Why did the United States become involved in the affairs of Mexico? The Mexican Government arrest 15 American sailors. Wilson sent the Marines to take control of Veracruz, an important Mexican port. The Huerta Regime collapsed and Wilson withdrew U.S. forces. The U.S. would again be forced to intervene in Mexico chasing a bandit named Poncho Villa, who had been raiding American towns.

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