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N. Arsene 1,2, H. Rebel 3, O. Sima 2 1 ISS Bucharest, Romania, 2 University of Bucharest, Romania, 3 KIT, Karlsruhe, Germany On the possibility to discriminate the mass of the primary cosmic ray using the muon arrival times from extensive air showers: Application for Pierre Auger Observatory. 1

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Content : 1.Cosmic rays energy spectrum 2.Extensive air showers (EAS) 3.EAS experimental techniques at the Pierre Auger Observatory (PAO) 4.Methods to determine mass of primary cosmic ray 5.On the possibility to discriminate the mass of the primary cosmic ray using the muon arrival times 6.Results and outlook 2

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1. Cosmic rays energy spectrum Greisen–Zatsepin– Kuzmin cutoff (GZK cutoff) 5 x eV 3

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2. Extensive air showers (EAS) 4

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Gaisser–Hillas : ( X max p - X max Fe ) ≈ 100 g cm -2 Nishimura–Kamata–Greisen (NKG) approximation : N ch = the total number of charged particles s = “age” parameter r 0 = Moliere radius ~ 79 m C = constant 5

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2. Extensive air showers (EAS) Heck D. et al.[3] Longitudinal EAS development. MC simulations with CORSIKA 6

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3. EAS experimental techniques at the Pierre Auger Observatory (PAO) Southern Hemisphere, Argentina Surface 3000 km surface detectors water Cherenkov (SD) 4 stations fluorescence detectors A. Creusot [4] 7

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3. EAS experimental techniques at the Pierre Auger Observatory (PAO) Water Cherenkov tanks AUGER COLABORATION [5] altitude 1500 m diameter 3.6 m height 1.55 m detects : muons, electrons, positrons, photons 8

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3. EAS experimental techniques at the Pierre Auger Observatory (PAO) AUGER COLABORATION [5], Eveniment recorded by Pierre Auger Observatory, E = 5 x eV Surface detectors reconstruction Primary energy : 9

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3. EAS experimental techniques at the Pierre Auger Observatory (PAO) Fluorescence detectors (FD) 3.5 m x 3.5 m spherical mirror -> 440 PMT camera Field of view 30 0 azimuth x elevation 1 pixel -> Jos Bellido, for the ́ Pierre Auger Collaboration [6] 10

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3. EAS experimental techniques at the Pierre Auger Observatory (PAO) Fluorescence detectors (FD) reconstraction AUGER COLABORATION [5] n SDP errors ̴ tenths of a degree Shower Detector Plane reconstruction : Shower Axis reconstruction : 11 Shower axis errors ̴ 1 degree

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3. EAS experimental techniques at the Pierre Auger Observatory (PAO) Fluorescence detectors (FD) reconstraction AUGER COLABORATION [5] Eveniment recorded by PAO, zenith angle = 56º, distance core - FD detector = 13 km 12

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4. Methods to determine mass of primary cosmic ray M. Risse [8] Longitudinal showers profile. MC simulations, E=10^19 eV, vertical Dependence of X max : 13

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4. Methods to determine mass of primary cosmic ray Correlation between X max and Nµ (Patrick Younk and Markus Risse, 2009) : Patrick Younka, Markus Rissea [9] X max - N µ distribution, E = eV, zenith = 45 ͦ. Average per 1000 simulations using Conex code with QGSJET-01 model a)Ideal detectors b)Real detectors : σ Nµ = 20 % σ X max = 20 g cm -2 14

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Time asymmetry in the shower development 4. Methods to determine mass of primary cosmic ray Hernan Wahlberg, for the Pierre Auger Collaboration [10] Position of maximum asymmetry vs. primary energy for different models and primaries. t ½ = mean risetime r = radius ζ = azimuth angle Θ = zenith angle Hernan Wahlberg, for the Pierre Auger Collaboration [10] Asymmetry development for the different samples 15

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5. On the possibility to discriminate the mass of the primary cosmic ray using the muon arrival times 16 Proposed by H. Rebel et al. for KASCADE colaboration, 2003 [12]

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6. Results and outlook Azimuthal distributions of muons in observable plane.p, E=8x10^17eV, zenith=30,S->N, CORSIKA - QGSJET01 model 17

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6. Results and outlook Momentum distribution of muons at ground, CORSIKA simulations – QGSJET01 model 18

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6. Results and outlook Distribution of arrival times of muons at ground, CORSIKA simulations – QGSJET01 model 19

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6. Results and outlook Distribution of the reconstructed atmospheric depth of muon production, CORSIKA simulations – QGSJET model 20

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6. Results and outlook Distribution of the reconstructed atmospheric depth of muon production using infill array detectors, average over 10 simulations (left) and 100 simulations (right) 30 +/- 3 muons in infill detectors Fe, E=8x10^17 eV 20 +/- 2 muons in infill detectors p, E=8x10^17 eV X max mu p ≈ 400 g cm -2 X max mu Fe ≈ 250 g cm -2 21

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6. Outlook Average number of muons per square meter as a function of radial distance to the core of the shower. Averaged over 100 showers with one sigma as error bars. Zero inclination. [11] - Analisys of a large set of CORSIKA simulations with primary energy above 10^18 eV - Find maximum distribution of the reconstructed atmospheric depth of muons production - Possibility to implement this method as a complementary method for determine the primary cosmic ray mass in Pierre Auger Experiment 22

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Bibliography : [1] Engel R. et. Al. 2011, Annu Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 61: [2] Diego Garca Gamez, 2010, Dpto. de Fsica Teorica y del Cosmos & CAFPE Universidad de Granada [3] Heck D et al 1998 FZKA Report Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe 6019 [4] A. Creusot, 2010, Latest results of the Pierre Auger Observatory, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 662 (2012) S106–S112 [5] AUGER COLABORATION, Properties and performance of the prototype instrument for the Pierre Auger Observatory, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 523 (2004) 50–95 [6] Jos Bellido, for the ́ Pierre Auger Collaboration, Mass Composition Studies of the Highest Energy Cosmic Rays, arXiv: v1 [astro-ph.HE]. [7] M. Unger, et al [Pierre Auger Collaboration], Proc. 30th ICRC,, Merida, (2007), arXiv: v1 [astro-ph]. [8] M. Risse, Acta Phys.Polon. B35,1787, (2004), arXiv:astro-ph/ v1. [9] Patrick Younka, Markus Rissea, Sensitivity of the correlation between the depth of shower maximum and the muon shower size to the cosmic ray composition, /j.astropartphys [10] Hernan Wahlberg, for the Pierre Auger Collaboration, Mass composition studies using the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory, Nuclear Physics B (Proc. Suppl.) 196 (2009) 195–198. [11] Jochem D. Haverhoek, 2006, Ultra High Energy Cosmic Ray Extensive Air Shower simulations using CORSIKA [12] I.M.Brancus,H.Rebel, A.F.Badea et. al. J.Phys.G29: ,2003 Features of Muon Arrival Time Distributions of High Energy EAS at Large Distances From the Shower Axis 23

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24 M. Unger, et al [7] Auger results for the Mean Xmax measurements as a function of energy

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