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America Claims an Empire: Chapter 10 Honors US History.

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1 America Claims an Empire: Chapter 10 Honors US History

2 Timeline: What’s Going On? United States: 1898 – The Spanish American War Begins 1914 – The Panama Canal opens 1917 – The United States enters WW I World: 1895 - Technology is developed for the modern radio. 1910 – The Mexican Revolution begins 1914 – WW I Begins in Europe

3 Section 1: Objectives By the end of this lesson, I will be able to: 1. Explain the economic and cultural factors that fueled the growth of American imperialism. 2. Describe how the United States acquired Alaska. 3. Summarize how the United States took over the Hawaiian Islands.

4 Section 1: Imperialism and America Main Idea: Beginning in 1867 and continuing through the century, global competition caused the United States to expand. Why it Matters Now: During this time period, the United States acquired Hawaii and Alaska, both of which became states in 1959. Key Terms: Imperialism Pearl Harbor Key Names: Queen Liliuokalani Alfred T. Mahan William Seward Sanford B. Dole

5 I feel like… 1.Wednesdays are awesome 2.I am glad to be in HISTORY Class 3.I’m here… 4.I ate TOO much over break and still paying for it 5.UGH… 

6 Imperialism and America: Throughout the 19 th century America expanded control of the continent to the Pacific Ocean By 1880, many American leaders felt the U.S. should join European nations and establish colonies overseas Thus began America’s foray into Imperialism – the policy in which stronger nations extend control over weaker nations This was becoming the trend around the world.

7 Why Would A Country Believe in Imperialism? – Part 1 1) Desire for Military strength Defend peace time shipping lanes Develop strategic bases for re-fueling Alfred T. Mahan (US Naval Admiral) encouraged imperialism for this reason!

8 Why Would A Country Believe in Imperialism? – Part 2 2) Thirst for new markets – to spur economy & trade United States was producing far more than they needed. (time to export)

9 Why Would A Country Believe in Imperialism? – Part 3 3) Belief in Cultural Superiority – a belief that Anglo-Saxons were superior Many Americans believed that the US had a responsibility to spread Christianity and “civilization” to the world’s “inferior peoples”

10 Anti-Imperialism *Some Americans felt that expanding into foreign territory would threaten Anglo- Saxon superiority *Others felt it was morally wrong to dominate weaker nations

11 Which of the three ideas do you think is the biggest reason why a country would want to become imperialistic? 1.Desire for military strength 2.Thirst for new markets 3.Belief in cultural superiority

12 The US Acquires Alaska: In 1867, Secretary of State William Seward arranged for the United States to buy Alaska from the Russians for $7.2 million Some thought it was a silly idea and called it “Seward’s Icebox” Time has shown how smart it was to buy Alaska for 2 cents an acre Alaska is rich in timber, minerals and oil

13 More About: Alaska Population: 686,293 (2008) Size: 663,268 square miles Became a State in: 1959 Highest Point: Mt. McKinley 20,320 ft Largest City: Anchorage - population 279,671 Anchorage, Alaska

14 The US Takes Hawaii: Hawaii had been economically important to Americans for centuries (Sugar Plantations owned by Americans made up ¾ of the island’s wealth) To avoid import taxes (tariffs), sugar growers pleaded for annexation

15 Hawaii: Part 2 Queen Liluokalani wanted to change the constitution so that non-landowners could vote (Would have returned political power to Native Hawaiians) January 16, 1893, USS Boston surrounded Honolulu Harbor and imprisoned Queen in her mansion Sanford Dole became “President” President McKinley officially annexed Hawaii on August 12, 1898

16 This is how I feel about how the U.S. acquired Hawaii: 1.I think they were right to acquire Hawaii the way they did 2.I can understand why, but don’t agree with how they did it 3.I don’t agree at all how they acquired Hawaii

17 Did We Meet Our Objectives: Can You: 1. Explain the economic and cultural factors that fueled the growth of American imperialism. 2. Describe how the United States acquired Alaska. 3. Summarize how the United States took over the Hawaiian Islands.

18 Spanish-American War PREVIEW “No man’s life, no man’s property is safe (in Cuba). American citizens are imprisoned or slain without cause. American property is destroyed on all sides…Wounded soldiers can be found begging in the streets of Havana…Cuba will soon be a wilderness of blackened ruins. The horrors of a barbarous struggle for the extermination of the native population are witnessed in all pars of the country. Blood on the roadsides, blood in the fields, blood on the doorsteps, blood, blood, blood! The old, the young, the weak, the crippled-all are butchered without mercy…is there no nation wise enough, brave enough to aid this blood-smitten land?”

19 Section 2: Objectives By the end of this lesson, I will be able to: 1. Contrast American opinions regarding the Cuban revolt against Spain. 2. Identify events that escalated the conflict between the United States and Spain. 3. Trace the course of the Spanish-American War and its results

20 Section 2: The Spanish American War Main Idea: In 1898, the United States went to war to help Cuba win its independence from Spain. Why it Matters Now: US involvement in Latin America and Asia increased greatly as a result of the war and continues today. Key Terms: Yellow Journalism U.S.S. Maine Rough Riders San Juan Hill Treaty of Paris Key Names: Jose Marti Valeriano Weyler George Dewey

21 The Spanish American War: America had long held an interest in Cuba When Cubans unsuccessfully rebelled against Spanish rule in the late 19 th century, American sympathy went out to the Cuban people After Spain abolished slavery in Cuba in 1886, Americans invested millions in Cuban sugar

22 Cuba’s Second War for Independence: Anti-Spain sentiment in Cuba soon erupted into a second war for independence Led by poet Jose Marti, Cuba attempted a revolution in 1895 Marti deliberately destroyed property, including American sugar plants, hoping to provoke American intervention

23 War Fever Escalates: Newspaper publishers William Randolph Hearst (New York Journal) and Joseph Pulitzer (New York World) exaggerated Spanish atrocities and brutality in “Headline Wars” This was called Yellow Journalism:

24 During this time period, do you think that people were more persuaded by media bias than they are today? 1.Yes 2.No 3.Maybe 4.Not sure 20 1234567891011121314151617181920 21222324252627282930

25 De Lome letter Many Americans sympathized with Cubans…and demanded President McKinley do something! He tried to peacefully negotiate a solution…SO Enrique De Lome (Spanish Minister in US wrote an infamous letter calling McKinley “weak” and “a bidder for admiration of the crowd!” (FIGHTING WORDS!!)

26 U.S.S. Maine Explodes! Early in 1888, President McKinley ordered the U.S.S. Maine to Cuba in order to bring home American citizens in danger and protect US property in Cuba (SOUND FAMILIAR?) On February 15, 1898 the ship blew up in the harbor of Havana More than 260 men were killed It was later determined to be an internal problem…but damage was done! War must be declared!!

27 War Erupts With Spain: There was no holding back those that wanted war with Spain Newspapers blamed the Spanish for bombing the U.S.S. Maine Recent investigations have shown it was a fire inside the Maine “Remember the Maine!” became a rallying cry for U.S. intervention in Cuba

28 War Erupts in the Philippines: U.S. forces surprised Spain by attacking the Spanish colony of the Philippines 11,000 Americans joined forces with Filipino rebel leader Emilo Aguinaldo By August, 1898 Spain had surrendered to the U.S. in Manila

29 The War in the Caribbean: A naval blockade of Cuba was followed by a land invasion highlighted by Roosevelt’s Rough Rider victory at San Juan Hill Next, the American Navy destroyed the Spanish fleet and paved the way for an invasion of Puerto Rico (Spanish colony)

30 US Wins: Signs Treaty of Paris The U.S. and Spain signed an armistice on August 12, 1898, ending what Secretary of State John Hay called “a splendid little war” The war lasted only 16 weeks Cuba was now independent U.S. receives Guam, Puerto Rico, and “bought” the Philippines for $20 million

31 Section 3: Objectives By the end of this lesson, I will be able to: 1. Describe the US involvement in Puerto Rico and in Cuba. 2. Identify the causes and effects of the Philippine- American War. 3. Explain the purpose of the Open Door Policy in China. 4. Summarize the views regarding US imperialism.

32 Section 3: Acquiring New Lands Main Idea: In the early 1900’s, the United States engaged in conflicts in Puerto Rico, Cuba, and the Philippines. Why it Matters Now: Today, the United States maintains a strong military and political presence in strategic worldwide locations. Key Terms: Foraker Act Platt Amendment Protectorate Open Door Notes Boxer Rebellion Key Names: Emilio Aguinaldo John Hay

33 How was your Thanksgiving Break? 1.Great! 2.Good 3.Average 4.Not so good 5.I don’t want to talk about it 20 1234567891011121314151617181920 21222324252627282930

34 Acquiring New Lands: The U.S had to decide how to rule the new lands Puerto Rico wanted their independence– but the U.S. had other plans Puerto Rico was important to the U.S. strategically Foraker Act - The U.S. set up a civil government, full citizenship, and a bicameral system

35 Cuba And The United States: The Treaty of Paris granted full independence to Cuba The U.S signed an agreement with Cuba known as the Platt Amendment 1903 Key features of “Platt” included 1. The right of the U.S. to maintain naval stations on the island and 2. The right to intervene in Cuban affairs Cuba had become a “protectorate” of the U.S.

36 Do you think that the two conditions of the Platt Amendment were fair to the Cubans? 1.Yes 2.Not sure 3.No 20 1234567891011121314151617181920 21222324252627282930

37 Filipinos Rebel: Filipinos reacted with rage to the American annexation Rebel leader Emilio Aguinaldo vowed to fight for freedom and in 1899 he led a rebellion The 3-year war claimed 20,000 Filipino rebels, 4,000 American lives and $400,000,000 (20x the price the U.S. paid for the land)

38 What was the main reason why the Filipino’s eventually rebelled against the United States? 1.They didn’t like having American Naval bases on their land 2.They felt like the Americans were too controlling 3.They didn’t feel Americans had them in their best interest 4.All of the above are true 5.Both 1 and 2 :20 1234567891011121314151617181920 21222324252627282930

39 Foreign Influence on China: China was a vast potential market for American products Weakened by war and foreign intervention, many European countries had colonized in China In 1889, John Hay, U.S. Secretary of State, issued the Open Door Policy which outlined his plan for free trade among nations in China

40 Boxer Rebellion: European nations dominated China’s cities Resentment arose in the form of secret societies determined to rid China of these “foreign devils” The Boxer’s were a secret group that rioted in 1900, killing and vandalizing all things foreign Foreign Troops were called in to put down this “Boxer Rebellion”

41 Why did the Boxer’s rebel against foreign forces? 20 1.They were stealing money from them 2.They were taxing many of the residents of the Chinese cities 3.They were controlling many of the businesses in China 4.They didn’t rebel, they liked the foreign countries doing business with them 1234567891011121314151617181920 21222324252627282930

42 Americans Protect Rights in Asia: After the Boxer Rebellion, John Hay again issued a series of Open Door Policies These policies reflected American beliefs in: 1. the importance of exports 2. the right of America to intervene to keep foreign markets open 3. the belief that America’s survival depended on access to foreign markets


44 Did We Meet our Objectives? Can You: 1. Describe the US involvement in Puerto Rico and in Cuba. 2. Identify the causes and effects of the Philippine- American War. 3. Explain the purpose of the Open Door Policy in China. 4. Summarize the views regarding US imperialism.

45 Section 4: Objectives By the end of this lesson, I will be able to: 1. Explain how Theodore Roosevelt’s foreign policy promoted American power around the world. 2. Describe how Woodrow Wilson’s missionary diplomacy ensured U.S. dominance in Latin America. 3. Describe the effects of America’s involvement in the Mexican Revolution.

46 Section 4: America as a World Power Main Idea: The Russo- Japanese War, the Panama Canal, and the Mexican Revolution added to America’s military and economic power. Why it Matters Now: American involvement in conflicts around 1900 led to involvement in WW I and later to a peacekeeper role in today’s world. Key Terms: Panama Canal Roosevelt Corollary Dollar Diplomacy Key Names: Francisco “Pancho” Villa Emiliano Zapata John J. Pershing

47 America As A World Power: Two events signaled America’s continued climb toward being the #1 world power 1) Roosevelt negotiated a settlement between Russia and Japan who had been at War – his successful efforts in negotiating the Treaty of Portsmouth won Roosevelt the 1906 Nobel Peace Prize 2) Construction of Panama Canal

48 The Panama Canal: By the early 20 th century, many Americans understood the advantages of a canal through Panama It would greatly reduce travel times for commercial and military ships by providing a short cut between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans

49 Building the Panama Canal: 1904-1914 The French had already unsuccessfully attempted to build a canal through Panama America first had to help Panama win their independence from Colombia – which it did Construction of the Canal stands as one of the greatest engineering feats of all-time Cost- $380 million Workers– Over 40,000 (5,600 died) Time – Construction took 10 years

50 Click the pic!!!

51 The Roosevelt Corollary: In 1904, President Roosevelt added the Roosevelt Corollary. The Roosevelt Corollary said that the US would now use force to protect it’s economic interests in Latin America. Roosevelt coined the phrase “Speak softly and carry a big stick; you will go far” during this time.

52 Dollar Diplomacy Just like other nations in the world that were practicing imperialism, the US was nervous that other nations would become more powerful. Dollar Diplomacy –US government loans made to foreign countries (favors) to pay off debt This allowed us to control others things though (taxes on import and exports) This helped keep European powers out of the Caribbean because they had US backing.

53 Woodrow Wilson’s Missionary Diplomacy: In 1913, Wilson realized that some countries were coming to power using immoral means. Prior to Wilson Missionary Diplomacy, the US recognized any government that controlled a nation, regardless of the nation’s policies or how it had come to power. Wilson felt that these aspiring countries should establish democratic governments. The Mexican Revolution (to come) was a reaction to this policy

54 The Mexican Revolution: Mexico had been ruled by a dictator for over 20 years. (Porfirio Diaz) Diaz had many investments in the US and many US companies owned large shares of oil wells, mines, and railroads in Mexico. The US investors and the wealthy Mexican businessmen were becoming extremely wealthy. The common people of the country however were desperately poor.

55 What Happens Next? In 1911, Mexican peasants and workers overthrew their dictator. The leader of the revolt (Madero) was murdered and a new leader took over. (Huerta) President Wilson refused to recognize the government this new leader formed. Wilson called it “a government of butchers.” Francisco Huerta

56 Intervention in Mexico: Wilson decided to watch and wait and see what might happen. In 1914, the Mexican revolt group arrested a small group of American sailors. They were released by Wilson wasn’t happy. He sent in the Marines and killed over 200 Mexicans. (18 Marines died as well) This brought the US and Mexico close to war. A new leader (Carranza) eventually took over Mexico and Wilson withdrew his troops.

57 Rebellion in Mexico Not everyone listened to Carranza. A group of rebels headed by Francisco “Pancho” Villa and Emiliano Zapata opposed the Mexican government. Villa and his men started taking the lives of Americans passing through Mexico (RR’s). In response, Wilson ordered General John J. Pershing and 15,000 men to capture Villa dead or alive.


59 Chasing Villa For almost a year Pancho Villa eluded American forces. Wilson decided to call in the big guns. He called out 150,000 National Guardsmen and stationed them along the Mexican border. The Mexicans grew angry over the invasion of their lands. Caranzza demanded withdrawal of US troops but Wilson refused. They were on the brink of war….but Both backed down – Why? 1. The US was facing war in Europe 2. Mexico decided to reform their government and help out the nation’s poor.

60 Sum it All Up: What Did America Accomplish During This Time Period? 1. Expanded it access to foreign markets in order to ensure the continued growth of the domestic economy. 2. Built a modern Navy to protect its interests abroad. 3. Exercised its international police power to ensure dominance in Latin America.

61 Did We Meet All Of Our Objectives? Can You: 1. Explain how Theodore Roosevelt’s foreign policy promoted American power around the world. 2. Describe how Woodrow Wilson’s missionary diplomacy ensured U.S. dominance in Latin America. 3. Describe the effects of America’s involvement in the Mexican Revolution.

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