Presentation on theme: "American Imperialism 1870-1914 US History. Essential Questions: 1. Does the United States have the right to tell other countries how to run their governments?"— Presentation transcript:
American Imperialism US History
Essential Questions: 1. Does the United States have the right to tell other countries how to run their governments? 2. Does the United States have the right to tell other countries how their people SHOULD live? 3. Does the US have the right to go into foreign lands to get resources we need?
If you were going to invade any country in the world- where would you invade and for what purpose?
I. What is imperialism? a. the policy by which stronger countries extend their political, military, and economic control over weaker countries b. Can be DIRECT or INDIRECT
II. Causes of American Imperialism a. competition with European imperialist countries b. ideas of cultural and racial superiority c. for strategic military locations d. To spread Christianity and Western Civilization e. For natural resources and to open new markets to sell American products
White Man’s Burden
III. US acquires new lands… a. Alaska- how? b. Hawaii- how?
IV. Spanish American War a. Spain owned Cuba, Phillipines, Puerto Rico, and lots of small islands in the Pacific Ocean b. Cuba wanted Independence from Spain c. US decides to help Cuba overthrow Spanish government but needed an excuse to go to war d. U.S.S. Maine blows up in Havana’s harbor, yellow journalists sensationalize reports of Spain’s mistreatment of Cuban nationalists
e. Rough Riders 1. Theodore Roosevelt emerges as a war hero 2. Rough Riders- volunteer cavalry unit
F. Outcome of the Spanish-American War US wins
G. US Acquires New Territory from the Spanish-American War 1. US gains Guam, Puerto Rico, Phillipines, Samoa, Wake Island, Christmas Island, among many others 2. US still controls Cuba indirectly although they are technically “free” a. US retains the right to intervene in Cuba if our business interests are threatened b. US helps draft Cuban Constitution 3. US is officially an EMPIRE now!
3. Phillipines rebel against US presence a. stage three year guerilla war b. led by Emilio Aguinaldo
V. US wants in on China! US wants to sell China products Senator John Hay- Open Door policy Chinese mad- Boxer rebellion
VI. Theodore Roosevelt as Leader a. When TR becomes president in 1901, he believes in imperialism b. Wants US to be seen as a tough dude c. “Walk softly and carry a big stick”
d. Teddy wants a canal But how was he going to get it? 1. Panama wanted to separate from Colombia 2. US helps Panama overthrow Colombian government in exchange for the canal
e. What was it like to build the canal?
F. Why is the Panama Canal important?
G. Great White Fleet
Great White Fleet a. Symbolic show of American power b. Navy=a country’s strength 1. based on Alfred T. Mahan’s book The Influence of Sea Power Upon History 2. Strong navy= strong nation
H. TR exerts power over Latin America
1. Monroe Doctrine 2. Roosevelt Corollary- asserts US power to intervene in Latin America 3. “Sphere of influence” 4. “Hemispheric Hegemony”
US Interventions in Latin America TODAY Argentina 1890 TroopsBuenos Aires interests protected Chile1891 TroopsMarines clash with nationalist rebels Haiti1891Troops Black workers revolt on U.S.-claimed Navassa Island defeated Nicaragua1894Troops Month-long occupation of Bluefields Panama1895 Naval, troops Marines land in Colombian province Nicaragua1896 TroopsMarines land in port of Corinto Cuba1898-Naval, troops Seized from Spain, U.S. still holds Navy base at Guantanamo Puerto Rico1898-Naval, troops Seized from Spain, occupation continues Nicaragua1898TroopsMarines land at port of San Juan del Sur Nicaragua1899TroopsMarines land at port of Bluefields Honduras1903TroopsMarines intervene in revolution Dominican Republic TroopsU.S. interests protected in Revolution Cuba TroopsMarines land in democratic election Nicaragua1907Troops"Dollar Diplomacy" protectorate set up Honduras1907TroopsMarines land during war with Nicaragua Panama1908TroopsMarines intervene in election
Nicaragua1910TroopsMarines land in Bluefields and Corinto Honduras1911TroopsU.S. interests protected in civil war Cuba1912TroopsU.S. interests protected in Havana Panama1912TroopsMarines land during heated election Honduras1912TroopsMarines protect U.S. economic interests Nicaragua Troops, bombing20-year occupation, fought guerrillas Mexico1913NavalAmericans evacuated during revolution Dominican Republic1914NavalFight with rebels over Santo Domingo Mexico Naval, troopsSeries of interventions against nationalists Haiti Troops, bombing19-year occupation after revolts Dominican Republic Troops8-year Marine occupation Cuba TroopsMilitary occupation, economic protectorate Panama Troops"Police duty" during unrest after elections Honduras1919TroopsMarines land during election campaign Guatemala1920Troops2-week intervention against unionists
Costa Rica1921Troops Panama1921Troops Honduras TroopsLanded twice during election strife Panama1925TroopsMarines suppress general strike El Salvador1932NavalWarships sent during Faribundo Marti revolt Uruguay1947Nuclear threatBombers deployed as show of strength Puerto Rico1950Command operationIndependence rebellion crushed in Ponce Guatemala1954-?Command operation, bombing, nuclear threatCIA directs exile invasion and coup d'Etat after newly elected government nationalizes unused U.S.'s United Fruit Company lands; bombers based in Nicaragua; long-term result: 200,000 murdered Panama1958TroopsFlag protests erupt into confrontation Cuba1961Command operationCIA-directed exile invasion fails Cuba1962Nuclear threat, navalBlockade during missile crisis; near-war with Soviet Union Panama1964TroopsPanamanians shot for urging canal's return Dominican Republic Troops, bombingMarines land during election campaign Guatemala Command operationGreen Berets intervene against rebels Chile1973Command operationCIA-backed coup ousts democratically elected Marxist president
El Salvador Command operation, troopsAdvisors, overflights aid anti-rebel war, soldiers briefly involved in hostage clash; long-term result: 75,000 murdered and destruction of popular movement Nicaragua Command operation, navalCIA directs exile (Contra) invasions, plants harbor mines against revolution; result: 50,000 murdered Honduras TroopsManeuvers help build bases near borders Grenada Troops, bombingInvasion four years after revolution Bolivia1987TroopsArmy assists raids on cocaine region Panama1989Troops, bombingNationalist government ousted by 27,000 soldiers, leaders arrested, killed Haiti Troops, navalBlockade against military government; troops restore President Aristide to office three years after coup Venezuela2002Command operationFailed coup attempt to remove left-populist president Hugo Chavez Haiti2004-TroopsRemoval of democratically elected President Aristide; troops occupy country
Reflection: Was American imperialism necessary for the US to become a rich and powerful nation? Why or why not?