3Essential Questions:1. Does the United States have the right to tell other countries how to run their governments?2. Does the United States have the right to tell other countries how their people SHOULD live?3. Does the US have the right to go into foreign lands to get resources we need?
4If you were going to invade any country in the world- where would you invade and for what purpose?
5I. What is imperialism?a. the policy by which stronger countries extend their political, military, and economic control over weaker countriesb. Can be DIRECT or INDIRECT
7II. Causes of American Imperialism a. competition with European imperialist countriesb. ideas of cultural and racial superiorityc. for strategic military locationsd. To spread Christianity and Western Civilizatione. For natural resources and to open new markets to sell American products
11IV. Spanish American War 1898-1901 a. Spain owned Cuba, Phillipines, Puerto Rico, and lots of small islands in the Pacific Oceanb. Cuba wanted Independence from Spainc. US decides to help Cuba overthrow Spanish government but needed an excuse to go to ward. U.S.S. Maine blows up in Havana’s harbor, yellow journalists sensationalize reports of Spain’s mistreatment of Cuban nationalists
12e. Rough Riders 1. Theodore Roosevelt emerges as a war hero 2. Rough Riders- volunteer cavalry unit
14G. US Acquires New Territory from the Spanish-American War 1. US gains Guam, Puerto Rico, Phillipines, Samoa, Wake Island, Christmas Island, among many others2. US still controls Cuba indirectly although they are technically “free”a. US retains the right to intervene in Cuba if our business interests are threatenedb. US helps draft Cuban Constitution3. US is officially an EMPIRE now!
30Monroe DoctrineRoosevelt Corollary- asserts US power to intervene in Latin America“Sphere of influence”“Hemispheric Hegemony”
31US Interventions in Latin America- 1890-TODAY Argentina 1890 TroopsBuenos Aires interests protectedChile1891 TroopsMarines clash with nationalist rebelsHaiti1891Troops Black workers revolt on U.S.-claimed Navassa Island defeatedNicaragua1894Troops Month-long occupation of BluefieldsPanama1895 Naval, troops Marines land in Colombian provinceNicaragua1896 TroopsMarines land in port of CorintoCuba1898-Naval, troops Seized from Spain, U.S. still holds Navy base at GuantanamoPuerto Rico1898-Naval, troops Seized from Spain, occupation continuesNicaragua1898TroopsMarines land at port of San Juan del SurNicaragua1899TroopsMarines land at port of BluefieldsHonduras1903TroopsMarines intervene in revolutionDominican Republic TroopsU.S. interests protected in RevolutionCuba TroopsMarines land in democratic electionNicaragua1907Troops"Dollar Diplomacy" protectorate set upHonduras1907TroopsMarines land during war with NicaraguaPanama1908TroopsMarines intervene in election
32Nicaragua1910TroopsMarines land in Bluefields and Corinto Honduras1911TroopsU.S. interests protected in civil warCuba1912TroopsU.S. interests protected in HavanaPanama1912TroopsMarines land during heated electionHonduras1912TroopsMarines protect U.S. economic interestsNicaragua Troops, bombing20-year occupation, fought guerrillasMexico1913NavalAmericans evacuated during revolutionDominican Republic1914NavalFight with rebels over Santo DomingoMexico Naval, troopsSeries of interventions against nationalistsHaiti Troops, bombing19-year occupation after revoltsDominican Republic Troops8-year Marine occupationCuba TroopsMilitary occupation, economic protectoratePanama Troops"Police duty" during unrest after electionsHonduras1919TroopsMarines land during election campaignGuatemala1920Troops2-week intervention against unionists
33Costa Rica1921TroopsPanama1921TroopsHonduras TroopsLanded twice during election strifePanama1925TroopsMarines suppress general strikeEl Salvador1932NavalWarships sent during Faribundo Marti revoltUruguay1947Nuclear threatBombers deployed as show of strengthPuerto Rico1950Command operationIndependence rebellion crushed in PonceGuatemala1954-?Command operation, bombing, nuclear threatCIA directs exile invasion and coup d'Etat after newly elected government nationalizes unused U.S.'s United Fruit Company lands; bombers based in Nicaragua; long-term result: 200,000 murderedPanama1958TroopsFlag protests erupt into confrontationCuba1961Command operationCIA-directed exile invasion failsCuba1962Nuclear threat, navalBlockade during missile crisis; near-war with Soviet UnionPanama1964TroopsPanamanians shot for urging canal's returnDominican Republic Troops, bombingMarines land during election campaignGuatemala Command operationGreen Berets intervene against rebelsChile1973Command operationCIA-backed coup ousts democratically elected Marxist president
34El Salvador Command operation, troopsAdvisors, overflights aid anti-rebel war, soldiers briefly involved in hostage clash; long-term result: 75,000 murdered and destruction of popular movement Nicaragua Command operation, navalCIA directs exile (Contra) invasions, plants harbor mines against revolution; result: 50,000 murdered Honduras TroopsManeuvers help build bases near borders Grenada Troops, bombingInvasion four years after revolution Bolivia1987TroopsArmy assists raids on cocaine region Panama1989Troops, bombingNationalist government ousted by 27,000 soldiers, leaders arrested, killed Haiti Troops, navalBlockade against military government; troops restore President Aristide to office three years after coup Venezuela2002Command operationFailed coup attempt to remove left-populist president Hugo Chavez Haiti2004-TroopsRemoval of democratically elected President Aristide; troops occupy country
35Reflection:Was American imperialism necessary for the US to become a rich and powerful nation? Why or why not?