Presentation on theme: "Brief Info about the War. War Office Dispatches #1 Dec. – Feb. 1861 Headline: Seven Southern States Secede from Union In November of 1860 Abraham Lincoln."— Presentation transcript:
Brief Info about the War
War Office Dispatches #1 Dec. – Feb. 1861 Headline: Seven Southern States Secede from Union In November of 1860 Abraham Lincoln is elected President of the United States. South Carolina was the first state to secede. South Carolina was followed by Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Florida, Louisiana, and Texas. Southern delegates met in February of 1861 and set up the C.S.A. The C.S.A. Constitution is based on the U.S. Constitution. Result: The Rebellious states mean business and have left the union
War Office Dispatches #2 Feb. 18, 1861 Headline: Jefferson Davis is new President of the C.S.A. Jefferson Davis, former U.S. senator, is inaugurated C.S.A. President in Alabama. In his inaugural speech he claims that the Union twisted the intentions of the Constitution. Reunion over the past two months is neither practical or desirable Davis chose Alexander Stephens to be his vice- president. Result: The CSA appears to have solid leadership in Davis
Map of the Divided
War Office Dispatches #3 March 4, 1861 Headline: Abe Lincoln inaugurated 16 th President Lincoln and his vice-president Hamlin have watched the crisis develop for four months. Eleven Southern States have seceded. Lincoln took office in unique and dangerous times. His inaugural ceremony was guarded closely, wary of assassination attempts. Not exactly conciliatory in his speech, Lincoln states that the issue of conflict lies in the South and that he has no intention of interfering with slavery. Result: Lincoln has taken office in dangerous times
War Office Dispatches #4 April 13, 1861 Headline: Rebels Shell Fort Sumter Lincoln’s attempt to provision Fort Sumter was seen as an act of aggression. At 4:30 a.m. on April 12, 1861, Confederates open fire on Fort Sumter. The bombardment lasted 34 hours. After the bombardment, Anderson surrendered to P.G.T. Beauregard. Result: “The curtain has fallen on the first act of the great tragedy of our age”
Bombardment of Sumter
War Office Dispatches #5 April 15, 1861 Headline: President Lincoln calls for 75000 volunteers President Lincoln calls for 75000 volunteers. The response was positive in northern states. Lincoln request spurred many newspaper editorials. Result: Lincoln asked for a few good men…and gets 75,000
War Office Dispatches #6 April 18, 1861 Headline: Robert E. Lee turns down Union Command Lincoln offered Robert E. Lee command of the Armies of the United States. Robert E. Lee turns down Union command. He chose to stay loyal to his native state of Virginia. Although he turned down the Union command he made it perfectly clear that he is opposed to slavery and secession. Result: Lincoln is disappointed – the Union faces a most formidable general
War Office Dispatches #7 April 19, 1861 Headline: First casualties of war are in Baltimore riots. They were between Union troops and Southern sympathizers. A Massachusetts Regiment en route to Washington DC exchanges shots with pro-slavery crowd hoping to prevent the troops from reaching the Capital Eleven citizens and four soldiers were killed. Result: Lincoln will have problems recruiting in the Border States
War Office Dispatches #8 May 20, 1861 Headline: Richmond, Virginia, becomes the new C.S.A. capital. The capital is moved from Montgomery, Alabama They moved the capital to get support from Virginia. Also because it was only 105 miles from Washington and therefore Washington could be captured to end the war. Many battles will be fought between the two capitals. Result: The CSA Capital is now only 105 miles from Washington
War Office Dispatches #9 May 25, 1861 Headline: A Hero’s death helps Union secure Alexandria. The Union has its first authentic hero, Elmer Ellsworth. In Alexandria, VA Ellsworth was shot when taking down the Confederate flag. Ellsworth led three troops into the city. Private Francis Brownell avenged his death. Result: Elmer Ellsworth becomes the first Union war hero in Alexandria
War Office Dispatches #10 July 21, 1861 Headline: Confederates feast on the lunches of Union spectators after victory at Battle of Bull Run. Union troops marched to the cry of "On to Richmond." Jackson's men and Union panic caused the road back to Washington to swell with fleeing Union troops. The battle was fought only 30 miles from Washington. Result: The South has won the first major Battle and confidence is high
War Office Dispatches #11 Aug. 5, 1861 Headline: the North levies the first income tax in United States history. Congress levies the tax in an attempt to pay for the expensive & ever-widening war The law will serve as the mainstay of the treasury Congress fixes a tax of 3% on incomes in excess of $800 a year. The tax is necessary to pay for the war. Result: A drastic and unique tax is necessary and unpopular.
War Office Dispatches #12 Aug. 10, 1861 Headline: Wilson Creek Battle extends the war into the West. Concern over Missouri was a factor in the Battle of Wilson Creek The first Battle in the Western Theater of the war The Confederates won the battle. Union General Nathaniel Lyon was shot twice in the heart and later died from the wound. Result: Nothing is changed – Missouri remains in the Union Camp.
War Office Dispatches #13 Nov. 27, 1861 Headline: McClellan named new army chief. General George Brinton McClellan at age 34 is picked to replace Winfield Scott as General in Chief of the Union Armies. He was chosen because of his work with the army of the Potomac. His men know him as “Little Mac”. The Union has high expectations of him. Result: The Union has high expectations for the young leader.
War Office Dispatches #14 March 9, 1862 Headline: Battle between Ironclads ends in a Draw. The Union's Monitor & Confederate’s Merrimac fight at Hampton Roads, Virginia The “gladiators of the Sea” fight for two hours. An edge goes to the Union even though the battle technically ended in a draw. Foreshadowing a new kind of modern warfare. Result: Wooden ships are now obsolete.
War Office Dispatches #15 April 7, 1862 Headline: Grant wins the decisive battle at Shiloh, Tennessee. Following earlier victories at Ft. Henry & Ft. Donelson – Grant moves south. A surprise Confederate attack by Confederate General Johnston almost captures Grant’s entire Army Grant wins the decisive battle at Shiloh, Tennessee - fought in a full-bloom peach orchard. Shiloh was the bloodiest battle of the war. Result: Union has another victory in the west – Grant’s stature grows.
War Office Dispatches #16 April 25, 1862 Headline: Admiral Farragut captures New Orleans for the Union. The largest city in the Confederacy has been captured. Admiral Farragut captures New Orleans for the Union with a ten-day battle. Result: Union captures key victory and comes closer to controlling the Mighty Mississippi River
War Office Dispatches #17 May 20, 1862 Headline: Pres. Lincoln signs The Federal Homestead Law. The Federal Homestead Law permits any citizen over the age of 21 to own a free plot of over 160 acres - if they occupy and improve it for five years. Many congressmen opposed the law. With no Southern opposition the law passed. Result: Horace Greeley praised the law as an opportunity to give “every poor man a home”.
War Office Dispatches #18 Gen. Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson May - June 1862 Headline: Stonewall Jackson’s classic offensive highlights the Shenandoah Valley campaign. Ordered by Lee to conduct a “diversionary” operations in the strategic Shenandoah Valley, Jackson staged a brilliant campaign. In 30 days Jackson has achieved immortal military fame. His troops marched 350 miles, defeated 3 separate Union armies in five battles, inflicted twice the casualties, seized numerous supplies, and wreaked havoc for the Union everywhere. Result: Jackson now becomes a “Legend”.
War Office Dispatches #19 June 25 – July 1, 1862 Headline: McClellan defeated in Seven Days' Battle – Lee could seize the momentum The battle was fought just east of Richmond. Over seven days separated the five battles fought by the same two armies. McClellan has superior numbers in every engagement. Lee wins 4 – 1 draw. McClellan retreated to the James River after losing a. Mechanicsville, b. Gaine's Mill, c. Savage Station, and d. Frayer's Farm. Result: “Little Mac’s” leadership & Union prestige have dwindled
War Office Dispatches #20 Aug. 29 - 30, 1862 Headline: Rebs win again at Bull Run After 13 months, Bull Run is again the location of a Confederate victory. Robert E. Lee and Stonewall Jackson defeated the northern commander, John Pope. The Rebel Yell caused Pope’s army to flee Pope is discredited and McClellan is reinstated as general. Result: The way is open for a Confederate invasion of the North
War Office Dispatches #21 Aug. – Sept. 1862 Headline: Sioux uprising put down in Minnesota A Sioux uprising led by Chief Little Crow to remove white settlers from their homes The Indians killed at least 800 settlers in their raiding. Colonel Henry Sibley and his state militia stopped the Sioux. More than 1500 Sioux were captured and 300 were hung. Result: Some Union troops are needed to protect the Frontier
War Office Dispatches #22 Sept. 17, 1862 Headline: Bloody Antietam gives The Union a victory The Union achieved its first major victory in the East at Antietam Lee's Confederates withdrew back into Virginia. Under McClellan the Union troops have won a crucial if not decisive victory. Only days before the battle Union cavalry found a copy of Lee's orders. McClellan followed up, but paused before his attack and lost any advantage Burnside (father of sideburns) replaces McClellan. Result: Lincoln could use this victory for political & diplomatic advantages
War Office Dispatches #23 Dec. 13, 1862 Headline: Union disaster at Fredericksburg; Burnside replaced. The Confederates earn victory at Fredericksburg, Va., on the Rappahannock River. Lee's troops defended the city from a line of fortified hills called Marye's Heights. 12000 Federals, led by General Burnside, were massacred as they attacked the hills. Gen. Ambrose Burnside is replace by “Fighting Joe” Joseph Hooker Result: Another Union battlefield disaster forces Lincoln to change Generals once again.
War Office Dispatches #24 Jan. 1, 1863 Headline: President Lincoln issues the Emancipation Proclamation. Declares that all slaves in rebellious states are free from bondage. The proclamation did not free many slaves until later when regions of the Confederacy were liberated by Union troops. Did not free any slaves in the loyal states. Result: Legally, this action began the movement to END SLAVERY in the U.S.
War Office Dispatches #25 March 3, 1863 Headline: President Lincoln signs first Draft Law Lincoln signs the first ever Draft Law. The law places liability on all males between the ages of 20 and 45. Those physically or mentally unfit, have certain dependents, or are felons are exempted. Someone could also hire a substitute or purchase his way out for $300. Result: The new draft law insures a strong Union military force.
War Office Dispatches #26 May 4, 1863 Headline: Lee wins a saddened victory at Chancellorsville. Rebel forces struck boldly and achieved success at the four-day battle at Chancellorsville, Virginia. Jackson was mistakenly shot by his own men and died from pneumonia eight days later. Result: Perhaps Lee’s greatest victory is extremely costly – Jackson is gone losing a valuable leader and hero.
War Office Dispatches #27 July 1 - 4, 1863 Headline: Gettysburg is crucial Union victory – Lee withdraws Union forces win the crucial victory at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. The loss to Union forces comes two months after the triumph at Chancellorsville. 13,000 Confederates under General George Pickett charged Cemetery Ridge Result: Lee’s invasion of the North is over, the Confederacy would never again step foot in the Union.
War Office Dispatches #28 May 4, 1863 Headline: The Mississippi fortress of Vicksburg falls to Grant. The fortress of Vicksburg in Mississippi falls to Grant. After a one-year siege of the fortress, General Grant accepts the surrender on July 4. Result: The Battles of Vicksburg and Gettysburg have buoyed the spirits of the Union. The South has been cut in half. Lee is in retreat in the East.
War Office Dispatches #29 July 13, 1863 Headline: Draft riots erupt in New York City. The Riots last 3 days – were touched off when the names of the first draftees were announced July 11. In reaction to the Nation's first draft law protest and outbreaks of violence have occurred in virtually every Northern State. Southern sympathizers have an amazingly strong hatred for the president. Result: The Union’s war effort seems hampered by the protests against conscription
War Office Dispatches #30 Sept. 19-20, 1863 Headline: Confederates win savage battle at Chickamauga Creek, in Georgia. Needing to win decisively after losing at Gettysburg and Vicksburg, Confederate troops under General Bragg beat Union troops at Chickamauga Creek, in Georgia. The victory gains some ground for the Confederacy. The only highlight of the battle for the Union was the steadfastness of the Union's General George Thomas, now called the “Rock of Chickamauga”. Colonel Eli Lilly introduces the concept of “Mounted Infantry” Result: Confederate’s victory slows down the Union juggernaut.
War Office Dispatches #31 Oct. 3, 1863 Headline: President Lincoln issues the Thanksgiving Proclamation. Lincoln issues the Thanksgiving Proclamation for the last Thursday in November of 1863. The President called for a day of observance for a day of thanks. The tradition of Thanksgiving began nearly 250 years ago with the Pilgrims in Massachusetts. Result: Americans in the North pause and give thanks for their blessings
War Office Dispatches #32 Nov. 19, 1863 Headline: Lincoln delivers the Gettysburg Address. Lincoln, determined to make the battlefield site "hallowed ground," delivers the Gettysburg Address at the small Pennsylvania town. Four months prior to his speech the titanic clash between blue and gray took place. Lincoln followed featured speaker Edward Everest. Result: Lincoln delivers the most famous American Speech (only 272 words). He captures “the Union’s Noble Cause” with great eloquence.
Gettysburg Address Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battle-field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate -- we can not consecrate -- we can not hallow -- this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us -- that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion -- that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain -- that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom -- and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.
War Office Dispatches #33 Nov. 23-25, 1863 Headline: Union forces win at Chattanooga. Union troops led by General George Thomas swept up Missionary Ridge and Lookout Mountain to win a crushing battle against General Bragg and his Rebel forces. Union soldiers heroically scaled Missionary Ridge without official orders from General Grant, and then they took the ridge in one hour. The battle took place near Chattanooga, Tennessee. Result: The Union has captured the KEY Southern railroad hub and is in position to split the South again.
War Office Dispatches #34 March 10, 1864 Headline: The Command of all Union Armies given to Grant. After suffering through incompetent generals, President Lincoln has appointed Ulysses Grant to command all armies of the United States. Prior to his appointment, Grant had received his commission as lieutenant general. Grant was unable to visit Washington for his appointment because he was visiting the Army of the Potomac. Result: The appointment rallies the Union public & Soldiers alike.
War Office Dispatches #35 June 9, 1864 Headline: Lincoln nominated for second term Delegates to the National Union Convention nominate Abraham Lincoln for their Candidate for president. Republicans and some War Democrats over looked Vice President, Hannibal Hamlin and chose Andrew Johnson as Lincoln's running mate. The party's platform includes putting down the Confederate rebellion and a constitutional amendment ending slavery. Result: The President has the support of his party to continue the mission.
War Office Dispatches #36 June 10, 1864 Headline: The Confederacy expands the draft. Realizing that their ranks are being depleted by an unplanned, prolonged war, the Confederacy expanded the draft. Men between the ages of 17 and 50 were then drafted. Even younger boys and older men are now required to support the South's cause. Result: Even younger boys and older men are now required to support the South's cause
War Office Dispatches #37 Aug. 31, 1864 Headline: The Democrats Party choose General McClellan to oppose Lincoln The Democratic Party met in Chicago and nominates General McClellan to oppose Lincoln in the November presidential election. They also chose George H. Pendleton to be McClellan's running mate. Their platform included a demand to immediately end the war and restore the Union. Result: Lincoln will face one of his most popular generals in the fall election.
War Office Dispatches #38 Sept. 1, 1864 Headline: Sherman captures Atlanta “the Jewell of the South” General Sherman led Union troops into Atlanta, Georgia, and captured the key city. The victory has lifted the spirits of the weary northern soldiers. Rebel forces evacuated the city on September 1, 1864 Sherman had shelled the city for days. Result: Sherman begins in Atlanta on his “march to the sea”.
War Office Dispatches #39 Feb. 3, 1865 Headline: Lincoln meets with Rebel leaders on River Queen. With the war's end in sight, Lincoln goes to Hampton Roads, Virginia, to meet Confederate leaders. As the five men sat in the salon of the River Queen, Lincoln told rebel leaders that the only way that real peace could be considered is if Confederate states realized the national authority of the United States. He also stated that the C.S.A. was never a separated nation. Result: This meeting was to no avail, the rebel forces will fight on.
War Office Dispatches #40 Mar. 4, 1865 Headline: Lincoln promises no malice at second inaugural. Lincoln offered peace in his inaugural address to the nation. He also mentioned that the war is winding down to a Union victory. He wants to have the union restored as soon as possible. He stated, "With malice toward none; with charity for all...let us strive on to finish the work we are in; to bind up the Nation's wounds." Result: A forgiving Union leader, hoping to restore the union, Lincoln takes office.
War Office Dispatches #41 April 3, 1865 Headline: Federals take Petersburg; occupy Richmond. Union soldiers under General Grant captured the area around Petersburg and Richmond. Sixty thousand Union troops lost their lives in the nine- month siege of Petersburg. Davis was informed while in church and evacuated before 11 a.m. On Monday April 3, 1865, Union troops entered and occupied Richmond. Result: Grant wins and another costly battle for the Confederacy.
War Office Dispatches #42 April 5, 1865 Headline: Lincoln tours Rebel Capital. President Lincoln took a tour of the Confederate capital and walked to the C.S.A. "White House." Crowds cheered him on as he walked through the area that Davis had evacuated recently. He returned to the ship that had brought him down the James River, the Malvem. Result: Lee’s under supplied army retreats to the west in hopes of joining with Johnston.
War Office Dispatches #43 April 9, 1865 Headline: Lee surrenders to Grant. Lee surrendered at the home of Wilmer McLean at Appomattox Court House. The three-hour meeting took place on Palm Sunday. Lee agreed to surrender the Confederate Army, turning over of Rebel arms and supplies. The Rebels were allowed to keep their private horses and arms, and Lee did not surrender his sword. Result: Lee's surrender at Appomattox ends organized confederate fighting.