2European Empires in Latin America: 1660s SpainFrancePortugal
3Early Social Class in Latin America Colonial society was divided into six classes based on birthPeninsulares (men born in Spain) Creoles (Spaniards born in Latin America) Mestizos (mixed European & Indian ancestry) Mulattos (mixed European & African ancestry) Africans (majority enslaved) Indians (of little economic value)
4The Economy in colonial Latin America Economy: based on the ideas of “Mercantilism”Africans & American Indians used as slave laborLands are used for natural resources (harvested/mined and traded)
5Causes of Latin American Revolutions Inspired by Enlightenment ideasCreole discontentMotivated by the “successful” American and French Revolutions.Preoccupation of Spain & Portugal in fighting in other wars (the Napoleonic Wars)Economic policies benefited Europeans at the expense of the native Latin Americans
6New ideas about freedom, rights, and liberty! Enlightenment ThinkersNew ideas about freedom, rights, and liberty!
7Creole DiscontentWant a voice in government and economy but are not allowed due to birth!
8Inspiration of American & French Revolutions Declaration of the Rights of Man & of the Citizen, 1789Declaration of Independence, 1776
9Preoccupation of Spain & Portugal In Fighting Napoleonic Wars Provides a model & a diversion!
11Toussaint L’Ouveture Leads a Revolution in Haiti (1804)
12First Colony to revolt…Haiti Home Country: French colony Date of Independence: 1804 Independence Leaders: - Toussiant-Louverture (former slave) - Jean-Jaques Dessalines (Toussaint’s general) Haitian Independence: 1791= slave revolt 1801= Toussaint seized 2/3 of Haiti (frees slaves) 1802= French troops arrive & agreement made to stop revolution 1804= Dessalines starts revolution again and declares independence
13ArgentinaHome Country: Spanish colony Date of Independence: 1816 Independence Leaders: - Jose de San Martin (Spanish military officer) Argentiaian Independence: 1816= Creole colonist rebel & seize government 1816= Martin declares independence
14The “Muscle” of the Revolution Bolivar coming from the North.José de St. Martín and Bernard O’Higgins cross the Andes Mountains.
15ChileHome Country: Spanish colony Date of Independence: 1817 Independence Leaders: - Jose de San Martin (Spanish military officer) - Bernardo O’Higgins (military officer) Chile Independence: 1817= San Martin leads his army across the Andes into Chile 1817= Joins forces with O’Higgins and defeat the Spanish and declare independence
16Simón Bolivar: The “Brains” of the Revolution Creole leader of the revolutions in Venezuela.Spent time in Europe and the newly-independent United States.
17Venezuela, Columbia, and Panama Home Country: Spanish colony Date of Independence: 1821/1822 Independence Leaders: - Simon Bolivar (Venezulan Creole/military general) Gran Columbia Independence: 1811= Venezuela declares independence = Revolts against Spanish 1821= Bolivar wins independence 1821= Rebellion goes to Columbia, Ecuador, & Panama 1822= Bolivar elected president; the new nation called Gran Columbia establishedVenezuela, Columbia, and Panama
21PeruHome Country: Spanish colony Date of Independence: 1824 Independence Leaders: - Jose de San Martin (Spanish military officer) - Simon Bolivar (Venezuelan Creole/military general) Peruvian Independence: 1821= San Martin takes army to Lima, Peru to drive out the remaining Spanish 1822= San Martin joins Bolivar/combines army 1822= San Martin leaves for Europe 1822= Carries rebellion to Columbia, Ecuador, and Panama 1822= Bolivar defeats Spanish at Battle of Ayacucho
22BoliviaHome Country: Spanish colony Date of Independence: 1825 Independence Leaders: - Simon Bolivar (Venezuelan Creole/military general) Bolivian Independence: 1824= Bolivar drives out the remaining Spanish from Peru 1825= Upper Peru separates and names itself Bolivia (after Simon Bolivar)
23Bolivar’s FailureAfter uniting Venezuela, Columbia, & Ecuador into Gran Columbia, he left to help free the rest of Latin AmericaHe died a year later, with his goal of uniting all of South America unfulfilled!
261.) Brazil Freed from Portugal The Portuguese royal family escaped Napoleon by fleeing to Brazil.Pedro I set up a new, independent kingdom in 1821 when his father returned to Portugal.Pedro II assumed full power after Pedro I abdicated his throne.
27BrazilHome Country: Portuguese colony Date of Independence: 1822 Independence Leaders: - Dom Joao/King John(leader of Portugal) - Dom Pedro (son of King John) Brazillian Independence: 1807= Prince John flees to Brazil to escape from Napoleon & rules from Portugal (14 yrs) 1815= Napoleon defeated 1822= Brazilian creoles demand independence 1822= petition by Brazilians ask for Dom Pedro to rule Brazil; King John agrees
282.) Independence for Spanish & Portuguese Latin America By the mid-1820s, revolts create many newly-independent nations.Toussaint L’Ouveture – HaitiBolívar, San Martín, & O’Higgins in: Paraguay, Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, Peru, Bolivia, the United Provinces of Central America, and Gran Columbia!
293.) No Unity! Failure of Bolivar’s dream for a united South America = Civil wars erupt in many newly independent countries.By 1830s, geographic barriers (mts., the Amazon, etc.), vast distances, plus cultural differences defeated attempts at unification.Gran Columbia.United Provinces of Central America.
304.) Independence Brought More Poverty The wars disrupted trade.The wars devastated the cities and the countryside.
315.) Left Many Countries in the Control of Caudillos WHO WERE THEY?:Mid-19c military dictatorsMostly wealthy “creole” aristocrats.Followed the fight for independence.Posed as reformers.BUT…once in power overthrew govt. & took away basic human rights.Attempted improvements, but most just cared about themselves and their families and friends [nepotism].Power changes usually occurred at bayonet-point [coup d’etats!]
33Additional Problems Feuds among leaders. Geographic barriers. The social hierarchy continued from the past.Conservatives favored the old social order.Liberals wanted land reform.Dependence on foreign nations for capital and for economic investments.
35“The Colossus of the North” US dominated affairs in the Americas.1823 – Monroe Doctrine.US takes Texas and Mexican Cession.US gains independence for Cuba.Roosevelt Corollary – US will police the America.US sent troops to Cuba, Haiti, Mexico, Honduras, Nicaragua.US built Panama Canal – “Yankee imperialism.”
39Mexican Revolutionaries Emiliano ZapataPancho VillaVenustiano CarranzaFrancisco I MaderoPorfirio Diaz
40The Mexican Revolution Victoriano Huerta seizes control of Mexico and puts Madero in prison where he was murdered.Venustiano Carranza, Pancho Villa, Emiliano Zapata, and Alvaro Obregon fought against Huerta.The U.S. also got involved by occupying Veracruz and Huerta fled the country.Eventually Carranza would gain power in Mexico.
41MexicoHome Country: Spanish colony Date of Independence: 1821 Independence Leaders: - Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla (priest) - Jose Maria Morelos y Pavon (rebel leader) - General Augustin de Ituribe (Creole officer) Mexican Independence: 1810= Costilla leads rebellion against Spainish 1811= Costilla defeated and executed 1811= Pavon leads rebellion for next four years 1815= Iturbide defeats Pavon 1821= turns on Spanish over loss of rights; makes peace with Pavon; declares independence