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TM 8-1 Copyright © 1999 Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. Affective and Motivational Approaches to Persuasion  Affective approaches –Classical conditioning.

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Presentation on theme: "TM 8-1 Copyright © 1999 Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. Affective and Motivational Approaches to Persuasion  Affective approaches –Classical conditioning."— Presentation transcript:

1 TM 8-1 Copyright © 1999 Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. Affective and Motivational Approaches to Persuasion  Affective approaches –Classical conditioning –The mere exposure effect –Zillmann’s theory of emotion –Mandler’s theory of emotion  Motivational approaches –Balance theory –Cognitive dissonance theory –Impression management theory –Attitude functions

2 TM 8-2 Copyright © 1999 Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. Classical conditioning in advertising Positive Stimulus (music, scenery, people, animals) Advertised Brand (paired with positive uncondition- ed response) Positive Affect Positive Affect (toward brand)

3 TM 8-3 Copyright © 1999 Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. Classical Conditioning... Humor Appeal

4 TM 8-4 Copyright © 1999 Addison Wesley Longman, Inc.

5 TM 8-5 Copyright © 1999 Addison Wesley Longman, Inc.

6 TM 8-6 Copyright © 1999 Addison Wesley Longman, Inc.

7 TM 8-7 Copyright © 1999 Addison Wesley Longman, Inc.

8 TM 8-8 Copyright © 1999 Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. Zillmann’s excitation transfer theory Arousal level Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Time physiological arousal perceived arousal

9 TM 8-9 Copyright © 1999 Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. Mandler’s Discrepancy/Interruption Theory Favorableness of Evaluation Soft Drink Fruit Juice Schema Activated Moderate incongruity Moderate incongruity Congruity All natural high preservative

10 TM 8-10 Copyright © 1999 Addison Wesley Longman, Inc.

11 TM 8-11 Copyright © 1999 Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. Balance theory application: Andre Agassi and the Rebel camera p (You) (Andre Agassi) o x (Rebel camera) + + ?

12 TM 8-12 Copyright © 1999 Addison Wesley Longman, Inc.

13 TM 8-13 Copyright © 1999 Addison Wesley Longman, Inc.

14 TM 8-14 Copyright © 1999 Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. Cognitive Dissonance Theory Attitude toward the task Control $20.00 $1.00 Experimental condition Favorable Unfavorable

15 TM 8-15 Copyright © 1999 Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. Feeling Lucky? Perceived luck Prebet Postbet Time of Measurement High luck Low luck

16 TM 8-16 Copyright © 1999 Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. Moderators of the Dissonance Effect Attitude-Inconsistent Behavior Perceived Aversive Consequences Perceived Responsibility Dissonance Arousal Dissonance Effect No perceived aversive consequences and no dissonance effect No perceived responsibility and no dissonance effect Misattribution of arousal and no dissonance effect

17 TM 8-17 Copyright © 1999 Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. The Knowledge Function… Arousal Conditions:Change Conditions: - Ambiguity- meaningful information - Uncertainty- meaningful frameworks Approach: Avoidance:Relevant Theories: Certainty UncertaintyTheory of Lay Epistemology Approach Persuasion:Avoidance Persuasion: Factual AppealsHypothesis Disconfirming Ads Quality AppealsMystery Ads Logical ArgumentsDisrupt-Then-Reframe

18 TM 8-18 Copyright © 1999 Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. The Knowledge Function… A Factual Appeal

19 TM 8-19 Copyright © 1999 Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. The Knowledge Function… A Factual Appeal

20 TM 8-20 Copyright © 1999 Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. The Knowledge Function… A Quality Appeal

21 TM 8-21 Copyright © 1999 Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. The Knowledge Function… Mystery Ads

22 TM 8-22 Copyright © 1999 Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. The Knowledge Function… Mystery Ads

23 TM 8-23 Copyright © 1999 Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. The Knowledge Function… Mystery Ads

24 TM 8-24 Copyright © 1999 Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. The Knowledge Function… Mystery Ads

25 TM 8-25 Copyright © 1999 Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. The Knowledge Function… Disrupt-then- reframe Ads

26 TM 8-26 Copyright © 1999 Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. The Value-Expression Function… Arousal Conditions:Change Conditions: - Salience of cues assoc.- Self-presentational appeals with values- Value-oriented appeals - Self-awareness Approach: Avoidance:Relevant Theories: Indirect “+” assoc. Indirect “-” assoc.Impression Management Theory Approach Persuasion:Avoidance Persuasion: Image AppealsUnattractive Users of Competing Brands Celebrity Endorsers Attractive Endorsers

27 TM 8-27 Copyright © 1999 Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. The Value-Expressive Function… Image Appeals

28 TM 8-28 Copyright © 1999 Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. The Value-Expressive Function… Attractive Endorsers

29 TM 8-29 Copyright © 1999 Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. The Value-Expressive Function… Celebrity Endorser

30 TM 8-30 Copyright © 1999 Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. Susceptibility to Image-Oriented Appeals

31 TM 8-31 Copyright © 1999 Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. Susceptibility to image-oriented appeals

32 TM 8-32 Copyright © 1999 Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. The Ego-Defense Function… Arousal Conditions:Change Conditions: - Threats- Self-insight - Repressed Impulses- Catharsis - Frustrations- Authority Approach: Avoidance: Relevant Theories: Increase perceived Decrease perceived Terror Management Theory likelihood of likelihood of desired events desired events Approach Persuasion:Avoidance Persuasion: Authority FiguresFear Appeals Expert Endorsers

33 TM 8-33 Copyright © 1999 Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. The Ego-Defensive Function… Expert Endorser

34 TM 8-34 Copyright © 1999 Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. The Ego-Defensive Function… Fear Appeal

35 TM 8-35 Copyright © 1999 Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. The Adjustment Function… Arousal Conditions:Change Conditions: - Salience of cues assoc.- Reward and punishment with needs- New needs - Activation of needs- New levels of aspiration Approach: Avoidance:Relevant Theories: Pleasure PainPromotion vs. Prevention Focus Approach Persuasion: Avoidance Persuasion: Focus on the benefits of using Focus on the costs of not using the advertised brand the advertised brand (comparative ads, classical (comparative ads, classical conditioning and social modeling conditioning and social modeling

36 TM 8-36 Copyright © 1999 Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. The Adjustment Function… Comparative Ads


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