Presentation on theme: "What role did the U.S. play in world affairs in the early 1900s?"— Presentation transcript:
1What role did the U.S. play in world affairs in the early 1900s? Essential Question:What role did the U.S. play in world affairs in the early 1900s?Warm-Up Question:Examine the reading providedWhat is each document saying about American foreign policy?How did foreign policy change in the 100+ years from Washington (1790s) to Roosevelt (1900s)?Lesson Plan for Friday, January 16, 2009: Warm-Up Question, Foreign policy notes, Compare foreign policy cartoons
4The Evolution of American Foreign Policy Activity History Alive! Activity: Assign groups of 3 one of the placard readings on foreign policy events and have them present: Reasons for intervention, WHAT WAS THE INTERVENTION, & impact of intervention. Discuss “imperialism spectrum” on board.
5Group Activity: American Imperialism Student groups will be assigned 1 of 8 countries impacted by U.S. imperialism:Groups will research the events of U.S. imperialism & present a brief 3 minute class presentation; Presentations will include:Reasons & impact of US InterventionThe positive & negative impactsShould the USA have done this? Why or why not?
6U.S. Imperialism: HAWAII From 1820 to 1890, Americans moved to Hawaii as missionaries & fruit plantation ownersIn 1891, Queen Liliuokalani came to power & tried to reduce the power of Americans living in HawaiiAmericans overthrew Queen Liliuokalani in 1893 & Hawaii was annexed by the USA in 1898
7U.S. Imperialism: CHINABy the 1890s, European imperial powers carved China into spheres of influence, giving them exclusive trade rights in Chinese portsIn 1899, the USA declared an Open Door Policy in China to allow free trade by any nation in any port
8U.S. Imperialism: CUBAIn 1895, Cubans declared their independence from Spain; To put down the revolution, Spain used brutal tactics (like starvation)U.S. newspapers sensationalized the events in Cuba (known as “yellow journalism”)In 1898, the U.S. sent the USS Maine to Cuba to protect American interests there; After the ship mysteriously exploded, Americans declared war on Spain
9Teddy Roosevelt & the Rough Riders The Spanish-American War was fought to liberate Cuba & the Philippines from Spanish control; The war lasted only 113 daysTeddy Roosevelt & the Rough Riders
10As a result of the Spanish-American War, Cuba was liberated & the USA annexed the Philippines, Guam, Puerto Rico
11U.S. Imperialism: PUERTO RICO Puerto Rice is still a U.S. territory; Lots of poverty & unemployment
12U.S. Imperialism: PHILIPPINES When the Philippines were annexed by the USA & not granted independence after the Spanish-American War, the Filipino-American War began in 1898The Filipino-American War lasted 3 years & cost more in money & American lives than the Spanish-American War
13U.S. Imperialism: DOMINICAN REPUBLIC TR added the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine, giving the United States “police powers” to protect Latin America from European imperialismWhen Theodore Roosevelt became president, he used “Big Stick Diplomacy”: Develop an active U.S. foreign policy with a strong navy to accomplish goals
14U.S. Imperialism: PANAMA TR used “Big Stick Diplomacy” to build the Panama Canal by encouraging a Panamanians to rebel from Colombia
16U.S. Imperialism: MEXICO The USA tried to intervene in Mexican affairs when Huerta overthrew Diaz & again when Carranza overthrew HuertaMexico & the USA almost went to war when Mexican rebel Pancho Villa killed 33 Americans
17The U.S. Becomes a World Power At the turn of the 20th century, the U.S. emerged as a world power:The U.S. asserted its dominance in Spanish-American War (1898)America built the 3rd largest navy in the worldAnnexed Hawaii, the Philippines, Puerto Rico, many Pacific islandsAsserted economic control over almost all of Latin AmericaAt the turn of the 20th century, the United States emerged as a world power. The Spanish American War and the acquisition of the Philippines represented both an extension of earlier expansionist impulses and a sharp departure from assumptions that had guided American foreign policy in the past. For the first time, the United States made a major strategic commitment in the Far East, acquired territory never intended for statehood, and committed itself to police actions and intervention in the Caribbean and Central America.Not since the Mexican War had the United States expanded so rapidly. In 1898 and 1899, the United States annexed Hawaii and acquired the Philippines, Puerto Rico, parts of the Samoan islands, and other Pacific islands. Expansion raised the fateful question of whether the newly annexed peoples would receive the rights of American citizens.
18The U.S. Becomes a World Power “Big Stick Diplomacy”“Moral Diplomacy”From (Progressive Era) the U.S. developed a new, aggressive foreign policy under T. Roosevelt, Taft, & WilsonTheir policies differed, but all revealed a desire to increase American wealth, military power, & stature in the world, especially in Latin America“Dollar Diplomacy”
21TR’s “Big Stick Diplomacy” Roosevelt hoped to expand upon America’s new, world stature after the Spanish-American War:TR believed in the superiority of American Protestant culture & hoped to spread these valuesTo increase American economic & political stature in the world, the U.S. needed to be militarily strong & ready to fight if neededTR & Sec of State Elihu Root applied “big stick” diplomacy most effectively in Latin America“Speak softly & carry a big stick, you will go far”—TR’s favorite African proverb
22TR’s “Big Stick Diplomacy” The U.S. paid $10 million for the canal & leased it for $250,000 per year (until Dec 31, 1999 thanks to Prez Carter)TR’s top foreign policy objective was to build the Panama Canal & he used his “big stick” to get it:When the Colombians rejected an offer to lease land in Panama to build a canal, TR supported a revolt for Panama independenceIn 1903, Panama (with the U.S. navy) became a nation & signed a lease agreement for a canalThe Spanish-American War revealed a flaw in the U.S. navy…it took too long to get its Pacific fleet to the AtlanticA Panama Canal would facilitate world trade & allow the U.S. quickly merge its Atlantic & Pacific naval fleets in an emergency
23The Panama Canal was an engineering marvel, but one of the most important reasons for its completion was the scientific elimination of malaria-causing mosquitoes“The inevitable effect of our building the Canal must be to require us to police the surrounding premises”—Sec of State, Elihu RootWhen opened in 1914, the canal gave the USA a huge economic advantage in the Western Hemisphere
24The Roosevelt Corollary One of TR’s greatest concerns was the intervention of European nations in Latin America:In 1903, Germany & England threatened to invade Venezuela to recoup unpaid debtsTR issued Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine in 1904 claiming special “police powers” in the Western HemisphereTR warned European nations to stay out AND warned Latin American nations to be more responsible OR the U.S. would interveneFrom , US intervened in Latin America to protect the canal, exclude foreign countries (bought Virgin Islands in 1917), & stabilizing nations:4
25The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine, 1904 Additionally, the Lodge Corollary in 1912 refused to allow foreign companies to buy ports or establish military sites in Latin America
26The Roosevelt Corollary was used to justify American armed intervention in the Dominican Republic, Cuba, Haiti, Nicaragua, & MexicoAttempts to maintain order in Latin America led to pro-American regimes that relied on dictatorial rule over its citizensTo enforce order, forestall foreign intervention, and protect U.S. economic interests, the United States intervened in the Caribbean and Central America some 20 times over the next quarter century--namely, in Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Panama. Each intervention followed a common pattern: after intervening to restore order, U.S. forces became embroiled in the countries' internal political disputes. Before exiting, the United States would train and fund a police force and military to maintain order and would sponsor an election intended to put into power a strong leader supportive of American interests. Unfortunately, the men who took power in many of these countries, such as Anastasio Somoza in Nicaragua, Rafael Trujillo in the Dominican Republic, and Francois Duvalier in Haiti, established despotic rule.
28Big Stick DiplomacyForeign policy under TR extended to Asia as well as Latin America:TR negotiated an end to the Russo-Japanese War in 1905 from Portsmouth, NHGentlemen’s Agreement in 1907 limited Japanese immigrationThe Root-Takahira Agreement in 1908 protected America’s Open Door Policy in China
31Taft and Dollar Diplomacy President Taft took over after TR & continued an aggressive foreign policy, called “Dollar Diplomacy”Use U.S. wealth rather than military strength in foreign policyIn Latin America, U.S. banks assumed debts to EuropeTaft’s attempts to build railroads in China alienated Japan & ended the Open Door Policy6
35“I didn’t steal the Panama Canal…I built it” Moral DiplomacyWilson apologized to Colombia for U.S. support of the Panamanian revoltWilson appointed pacifist William Jennings Bryan as his Secretary of StateWilson was well-versed in domestic policy before becoming president, but not foreign policyHe believed that Moral Diplomacy could bring peace & democracy to the world without militarism & warWilson talked of “human rights” in Latin America, but defended the Monroe Doctrine & intervened more than Roosevelt or Taft“It would be the irony of fate if my administration had to deal chiefly with foreign affairs”—Wilson in 1912To enforce order, forestall foreign intervention, and protect U.S. economic interests, the United States intervened in the Caribbean and Central America some 20 times over the next quarter century--namely, in Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Panama. Each intervention followed a common pattern: after intervening to restore order, U.S. forces became embroiled in the countries' internal political disputes. Before exiting, the United States would train and fund a police force and military to maintain order and would sponsor an election intended to put into power a strong leader supportive of American interests. Unfortunately, the men who took power in many of these countries, such as Anastasio Somoza in Nicaragua, Rafael Trujillo in the Dominican Republic, and Francois Duvalier in Haiti, established despotic rule.To which TR replied:“I didn’t steal the Panama Canal…I built it”7
36Moral Diplomacy in Mexico Wilson refused to recognize Huerta & demanded that he step down so legitimate elections could be held for a new presidentWhen Huerta refused, Wilson used minor incidents (arrest of some U.S. sailors in Tampico) to send the military to occupy Veracruz which forced Huerta to flee to EuropeIn 1913, Mexican president Madero was overthrown by dictator Victoriano HuertaMoral Diplomacy in MexicoMoral diplomacy seemed to fail as war with Mexico seemed eminent but the WWI forced Americans to change their focus to EuropeOnly a week after taking office in 1913, Wilson called upon Mexico's president, Victoriano Huerta, who had seized power after the constitutional president was murdered, to step aside when elections were held. When Huerta refused, Wilson used minor incidents--including the arrest of some American sailors in Tampico and the arrival of a German merchant ship carrying supplies for Huerta--as a pretext for occupying the Mexico port of Veracruz. Within weeks, Huerta was forced to leave his country.During the conflict, the Mexican revolutionary Pancho Villa had made a number of raids into U.S. territory near the Mexican border. Wilson responded by ordering Gen. John J. (Black Jack) Pershing to cross into Mexico.Mexican rebel Pancho Villa tried to provoke war with the U.S. by raiding across the border for supporting his rival CarranzaWilson responded by sending the military to find Villa (who were unable to do so)
37ConclusionsAfter the Spanish-American War, the USA assumed an aggressive foreign policy:In order to maintain order, forestall foreign intervention, & protect U.S. economic interestsBy the outbreak of WWI, the USA had seen its foreign policy evolve from strict neutrality, to imperialist, to police officerWashington’s Proclamation of Neutrality (1793) & Farewell Address (1796)Annexation of Alaska, Hawaii, & Philippines; Open Door policy in China“Big Stick,” “Dollar,” & “Moral” diplomacies
38Essential Question:How did American foreign policy change from the 19th century to the early 20th century?Reading Quiz Ch 22A ( )Lesson Plan for Tuesday, January 20, 2009: RQ 22A, Foreign policy activity HA!