3The Tragedy of Macbeth'Macbeth' is a classed as a tragedy because it charts the downfall of a powerful individual.In a Shakespearean tragedy, the protagonists are shown to be responsible for their choices that result in their downfall.
4The Tragedy of Macbeth'Macbeth' is therefore a tragedy because Macbeth has chosen his course of action, and each subsequent action is a reaffirmation of that original, and bad, choice.
5Essay QuestionIt is Macbeth alone who is to blame for his downfall. It is his weaknesses which allow others to manipulate him and no-one forces him to take the actions he chooses.How far do you agree with this statement?
6Act 1 Scene 1The three Witches plan to meet Macbeth on the heath, as he returns from battle.Hurlyburly : confusion/the battleEre: beforeHeath: open moorlandGreymalkin...Paddock: names for a cat and a toad, animal shapes taken by the Witches’ attendant spiritsAnon: We’re coming at once.
7Act 1, Scene 1Why does Shakespeare open the play by showing the Witches?Why is it good for Macbeth not to appear first?
8Act 1 Scene 2A soldier reports to King Duncan that the rebel Macdonwald and his Norwegian soldiers have been defeated. He tells Duncan that the Scottish generals, Macbeth and Banquo, performed bravely in the battle. Duncan announces that he will sentence the rebel Thane of Cawdor to death and that Macbeth will be given his title.
9Act 1 Scene 2Thane: a Scottish Lord As sparrows eagles, or the hare the lion: Macbeth and Banquo were no more frightened than fierce creatures would be of timid ones. Craves compositions: is begging to discuss peace terms. Our bosom interest: matters close to our heart.
10Act 1, Scene 3Returning from battle Macbeth and Banquo meet the three Witches. They tell Macbeth that he will be Thane of Cawdor and King, and Banquo that he will be father to a line of Kings, though never King himself. After the Witches have vanished, Ross and Angus arrive to tell Macbeth that he has been given the title Thane of Cawdor. Although Banquo warns him that the Witches try to lure people to evil, Macbeth is excited by their prophecies.
11Act 1, Scene 3Quoth: said I’ll do: I’ll do him mischief Thrice: three times Hereafter: at some time in the future Rapt withal: completely carried away in a trance
12Act 1, Scene 3How does Duncan reward Macbeth for his bravery in defeating the rebels? Comment on the order in which Duncan announces it and Macbeth finds it out.Macbeth calls the day of the battle “foul and fair”. Comment on what you think he means.When Macbeth is told of his new title, how do he and Banquo react? Can you think of reasons for the difference in reactions?
13Act 1, Scene 4Duncan thanks Macbeth and Banquo for the part they played in defeating the rebels. Macbeth’s secret hope to become King receives a setback when Duncan announces that his eldest son, Malcolm, will be heir to the throne.
14Act 1, Scene 4Why does Macbeth call Malcolm “a step on which” he “must fall down or else o'er leap”? Which of these alternatives do you expect Macbeth to choose and how might he do it?
15Act 1, Scene 5Lady Macbeth receives a letter from her husband in which he tells her about his meeting with the Witches. She fears that he is too good-natured to kill Duncan, and decides to use all her powers to persuade him. Receiving news that Duncan plans to spend that night at their castle, she calls upon evil spirits to toughen her for the murder. Lady Macbeth advises Macbeth to leave everything to her.
16Act 1, Scene 5What does Lady Macbeth fear about her husband, after she has read his letter?Lady Macbeth tells her husband to “look like the innocent flower/But be the serpent under it”. Explain what she means.
17Act 1, Scene 6King Duncan arrives at the Macbeths’ castle. Lady Macbeth welcomes him.
18Act 1, Scene 7 Key SceneMacbeth has left the banquet, tormented by doubts about murdering Duncan. When Lady Macbeth comes to fetch him back into the banquet, he declares that they must not go ahead with the murder. Lady Macbeth explains how the blame for the murder can be laid upon Duncan’s attendants. She persuades Macbeth to go ahead with the plan.
19Look at Macbeth's soliloquy in Act 1 Scene 7. Imagine you are playing Macbeth and answer the following questions in as much detail as you can.1. What am I saying?- Put his speech into your own words2. Why am I saying it?- What does he want? What is he thinking? What is he feeling? What is his personality like?3. How do I say it? (to show the thoughts and feelings above)
20MACBETH If this business would really be finished when I did the deed, then it would be best to get it over with quickly. If the assassination of the king could work like a net, sweeping up everything and preventing any consequences, then the murder would be the be-all and end-all of the whole affair, and I would gladly put my soul and the afterlife at risk to do it. But for crimes like these there are still punishments in this world. By committing violent crimes we only teach other people to commit violence, and the violence of our students will come back to plague us teachers. Justice, being equal to everyone, forces us to drink from the poisoned cup that we serve to others. The king trusts me in two ways. First of all, I am his kinsman and his subject, so I should always try to protect him. Second, I am his host, so I should be closing the door in his murderer’s face, not trying to murder him myself. Besides, Duncan has been such a humble leader, so free of corruption, that his virtuous legacy will speak for him when he dies, as if angels were playing trumpets against the injustice of his murder. Pity, like an innocent newborn baby, will ride the wind with winged angels on invisible horses through the air to spread news of the horrible deed to everyone everywhere. People will shed a flood of tears that will drown the wind like a horrible downpour of rain. I can’t spur myself to action. The only thing motivating me is ambition, which makes people rush ahead of themselves toward disaster.
22Macbeth goes to kill Duncan. Act 2, Scene 1Key SceneMacbeth tries to test Banquo to see how loyal he might be to him in the future.Once Banquo has left, Macbeth has a vision of a dagger stained with blood.Macbeth goes to kill Duncan.
23Act 2, Scene 2Key SceneMacbeth returns form Duncan’s chamber and tells Lady Macbeth how he killed the king.Lady Macbeth is appalled to see that Macbeth has brought the bloody daggers away from Duncan’s chamber. As he is too frightened to take them back, she does it herself.Hearing a knocking at the castle gates, Macbeth and Lady Macbeth go to wash the blood from their hands.
25Act 2, Scenes 1/21. Put Macbeth's soliloquy into your own words.- what is he saying?- what is he thinking?2. Discuss the differences between Macbeth and Lady Macbeth after the murder.- explain how Macbeth reacts: use quotations to support your ideas.- explain how Lady Macbeth reacts and how this is different: use quotations to support your ideas.3. Explain the reasons why Lady Macbeth is frustrated with Macbeth.
26Act 2, Scene 3The castle porter opens the gates to Macduff and Lennox and jokes with them. Having gone to wake the King, Macduff discovers the murder. Duncan’s sons, Malcolm and Donalbain, are told of their father's death. As Macbeth is explaining that he killed the attendants because he was furious that they had killed Duncan, his wife faints. Malcolm and Donalbain, fearing for their safety, decide to flee.
27Dramatic irony = irony that is inherent in speeches or a situation of a drama and is understood by the audience but not grasped by the characters in the play.For example;When Macbeth plans the murder of Duncan whilst feigning loyalty. Duncan does not know of Macbeth’s plans but the audience does.
28Split your page (or a double page) into 6 boxes and number them. LI: to show our understanding of character and dramatic irony in Act 2 Scene Three.Split your page (or a double page) into 6 boxes and number them.Each box represents a moment of this scene, from where Macbeth enters.
292. Macduff discovers the body of Duncan. You will draw figures to represent the characters in this scene, label them and then, in speech bubbles, give each character a key quotation. Then, give them a thought bubble and write what you think they are really thinking at this moment.1. Macbeth enters and is chatting to the other lords while Macduff goes to wake Duncan.2. Macduff discovers the body of Duncan.3. Macbeth and Lennox come back from the bedchamber. Donalblain and Malcolm enter the scene.4. Macbeth describes why he kills the servants.5. Banquo suggests they meet to discuss the murder.6. Malcolm and Donalbain discuss what they will do.
31Act 2, Scene 4An old man and Ross discuss the strange, unnatural events which followed the killing of Duncan. Macduff joins them. He reports that Duncan’s sons, Malcolm and Donalbain, are said to have bribed their father’s attendants to kill them. While Macduff decides to return to his castle in Fife, Ross goes to see Macbeth crowned as King.
32What might be the point of this speech? An old man tells Ross about a “mousing owl” that killed a falcon and about Duncan's horses turning wild and eating each other.What might be the point of this speech?Comment on the idea of things being “unnatural” at this point in the play.
33Act 3, Scene 1Banquo privately says that he is suspicious of Macbeth. Macbeth and Lady Macbeth – now King and Queen – greet Banquo. Macbeth checks on Banquo’s plans to go riding that afternoon. Macbeth privately expresses his fears about Banquo. He knows that Banquo is a good man, but he cannot forget the Witches’ prophesy that Banquo’s sons will be kings. He persuades two murderers to kill Banquo and his son, Fleance.
34Act 3, Scene 2Though he is now King, Macbeth is worried about the dangers which still threaten him and Lady Macbeth. Refusing to tell Lady Macbeth about his plans to have Banquo killed, Macbeth concludes that evil deeds need to be backed up by further crimes.
35Act 3, Scene 3A third man joins the two murderers sent to kill Banquo and Fleance. They are only partly successful; although they kill Banquo, Fleance escapes.
36Act 3, Scene 4Macbeth entertains the lords at a banquet. He is told by one of the murderers that Banquo is dead, but Fleance escaped. At the banquet, Macbeth sees Banquo’s ghost. Despite Lady Macbeth’s efforts to calm him, he cannot hide his terror, and the banquet ends abruptly. To find out more about the future, Macbeth decides to visit the Witches the following morning.
37LI: to demonstrate and develop understanding of Act 3 Scenes 1-4. 1. Put Banquo's short soliloquy Act 3, Scene 1 into your own words.2. Read over Macbeth's soliloquy in this scene. On one side of your page list the reasons why Macbeth feels he must kill Banquo and on the other write down specific, matching quotations.3. Read over Scene 2. Discuss in detail how Lady Macbeth and Macbeth's relationship has changed and how each of them are feeling at this point in the play. Use short, specific quotations to support your answers.
384. Describe how Macbeth changes when he sees the ghost of Banquo 4. Describe how Macbeth changes when he sees the ghost of Banquo. Use quotations to support your answer.5. What is Lady Macbeth's response? Use quotations to support your detailed answer.6. Describe how you think the other lords are feeling at this point and explain why.7. Why do you think this is the turning point of the play?8. Would you show the ghost? Why?
39Act 3, Scene 5The Witches are visited by the Witch goddess Hecate, who is angry about the way they have dealt with Macbeth.
41Act 3, Scene 6Lennox talks about Macbeth’s murderous behaviour with another lord. The lord tells Lennox that Malcolm has fled to England and that Macduff has gone there to seek support for an attempt to overthrow Macbeth.
42What people say about Macbeth Look at 3.5 and Look at what the characters in these scenes say about Macbeth.What people say about MacbethWhat they really mean
43Act 4, Scene 1Macbeth visits the Witches and is shown a series of mysterious visions about what will happen in the future. As the Witches disappear, Lennox arrives to report that Macduff has gone to England. Macbeth instantly decides to kill everyone in Macduff’s castle.
44Who is being spoken about here? Does the audience agree? Why? 1. "By the pricking of my thumbs/Something wicked this way comes"Who is being spoken about here? Does the audience agree? Why?2. Discuss what you think each of the apparitions represent.3. Why do you think the Witches are showing them to Macbeth? To help him? To lead him to destruction? Explain your answer in as much detail as you can.4. How would you describe Macbeth's attitude to the apparitions? Use evidence from the text to support your answer.
45Act 4, Scene 2Ross visits Lady Macduff. She cannot understand why her husband has left her to flee to England. After Ross leaves, a frightened messenger urges Lady Macduff to escape from the approaching danger. Murderers kill Lady Macduff’s son and chase her as she tries to escape.
46Act 4, Scene 3In England, Macduff hopes to persuade Malcolm to return to Scotland and overthrow Macbeth. Having tested Macduff’s loyalty, Malcolm reveals that he has an army and is ready to invade. Ross arrives and tells Macduff that his family have been killed. Malcolm tries to comfort Macduff and they prepare to march north to do battle with Macbeth.
47LI: to demonstrate and develop understanding of 4.2 and 4.3. 1. Why do you think Shakespeare has chosen to show the murder of Lady Macduff and her son? Think about how this could influence the audience's opinion of both Macbeth and Macduff.2. Look Macduff's lines in Find 2 quotations which illustrate the state of Scotland as a result of Macbeth's rule and explain in your own words what each one means.3. What does Macduff want from Malcolm? Look at "Let us rather/Hold fast the mortal sword...down-fall birthdom."
484. Explain how Malcolm tests Macduff's loyalty 4. Explain how Malcolm tests Macduff's loyalty. What is the audience's opinion of this?5. Malcolm: I grant him bloody,Luxurious, avaricious, false, decietful,Sudden, malicious, smacking of every sinThat has a name.Here Malcolm lists the sins that he feels Macbeth is guilty of. What evidence is there in the play for each one?
496. Look at Ross' speech when he enters the scene 6. Look at Ross' speech when he enters the scene. What image is he painting of the Scotland he left behind. Use short, specific quotations to support your answer.7. How does Macduff react to the terrible news Ross brings? Use evidence from the text to support your answer.
50Act 5, Scene 1Lady Macbeth’s doctor and gentlewoman watch her sleepwalking. They see that her mind is tormented by guilt and horror at the murders that have been committed.
51Quotation - dialogue or stage direction LI: to demonstrate and develop our understanding of 5.1What events earlier in the play do Lady Macbeth's speeches and actions refer to?2. Look at the Doctor's final speech. Put what he means into your own words.3. Why do you think Shakespeare chose to include this scene?Quotation - dialogue or stage directionExplanation of what it refers to from earlier in the play
52Act 5, Scene 2The army of Scottish lords formed to overthrow Macbeth approaches Macbeth’s castle at Dunsinane, ready to meet up with Malcolm. The lords discuss Macbeth’s loss of control.
53Act 5, Scene 3In his castle Macbeth refuses to hear anymore reports of the forces facing him, confident that he cannot be harmed. The doctor reports that Lady Macbeth is sick in her mind. Macbeth prepares to fight, armed with the Witches’ predictions.
54Act 5, Scene 4Malcolm orders every man to cut down and carry a bough from Birnam Wood so that it will be hard to see how big his army is. He reports that many have deserted Macbeth.
55Act 5, Scene 4Macbeth is told that Lady Macbeth is dead. When Birnam Wood begins to move, his earlier confidence in the Witches’ prophesies is shaken. Macbeth resolves to die fighting.
56Act 5, Scene 6Malcolm instructs Siward and his son to take charge of the leading regiments. Malcolm then orders the trumpets to sound.
57Act 5, Scene 7Battle has begun. Macbeth kills Young Siward, but his castle is soon surrendered. Macduff searches the battlefield for Macbeth.
58LI: to show understanding of 5.2-5.7 Imagine you are either Macbeth or Macduff. Write about the final battle from their perspective.You should write in the first person, including:- how your character is feeling- what they are thinking- what happens in the plot (told from your character's perspective)- what they think of other characters
59Macbeth finally counters Macduff, and is killed. Act 5, Scene 8Macbeth finally counters Macduff, and is killed.
60Act 5, Scene 9Malcolm and his supporters are victorious. He rewards the lords and invites them to his coronation.
61Macbeth caused his own downfall. You need to work together in your groups and discuss your ideas both for and against this statement.You will then plan and give a presentation where you present both sides of your argument to the rest of the class. At the end of your presentation, you will tell the class if your group decided whether he is totally responsible for what happened to him.You will need to give evidence to support all of your ideas and can be in the form of:quotations key scene events from the plotwhat the characters say and do
62How far do you agree with this statement? It is Macbeth alone who is to blame for his downfall. It is his weaknesses which allow others to manipulate him and no-one forces him to take the actions he chooses.How far do you agree with this statement?