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Nationalism Part I – Europeans have even MORE revolutions.

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Presentation on theme: "Nationalism Part I – Europeans have even MORE revolutions."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nationalism Part I – Europeans have even MORE revolutions

2 Types of Nationalist Movements Unification Unification –Mergers of politically divided but culturally similar lands  19 th century Germany  19 th century Italy

3 Separation Separation –Culturally distant group resists being added to a state or tries to break away  Greeks in the Ottoman Empire  French-Canadians in Canada

4 State-building State-building –Culturally distinct groups form into a new state by accepting a single culture  The United States  Turkey

5 Balkans Where are the Balkans? Where are the Balkans? Southeastern Europe Southeastern Europe Greece, Albania, Bulgaria, Romania, western Turkey, Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia, Macedonia, and Kosovo Greece, Albania, Bulgaria, Romania, western Turkey, Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia, Macedonia, and Kosovo In the early 1800s, all controlled by Ottoman Empire In the early 1800s, all controlled by Ottoman Empire

6 1600s

7 Late 1800s

8 Greeks rebel Greece controlled by Turks Greece controlled by Turks Western Europeans not happy Western Europeans not happy Russians upset Russians upset Greeks rebel against Turks in 1821 Greeks rebel against Turks in 1821 Britain, France and Russia unite forces in 1827 to liberate Greece Britain, France and Russia unite forces in 1827 to liberate Greece Greece becomes independent in 1830 – first time since Greece was taken over by the Romans Greece becomes independent in 1830 – first time since Greece was taken over by the Romans

9 1830 is a big year Netherlands rules modern day Netherlands and Belgium Netherlands rules modern day Netherlands and Belgium Riots break out in Brussels against Dutch rule, Belgium declares independence in 1830 Riots break out in Brussels against Dutch rule, Belgium declares independence in 1830 Italians start to rebel in 1830, some small states unify into larger states Italians start to rebel in 1830, some small states unify into larger states Poles in Warsaw rebel against Russians in 1830, eventually defeated by Russian army Poles in Warsaw rebel against Russians in 1830, eventually defeated by Russian army

10 1820

11 More revolutions in 1848 Metternich (remember him) is still calling the shots in Austria Metternich (remember him) is still calling the shots in Austria –There is an emperor, but Metternich is the real power Riots break out in Vienna, Metternich resigns Riots break out in Vienna, Metternich resigns Other parts of Austrian Empire rebel Other parts of Austrian Empire rebel –Hungarians in Budapest, Czechs in Prague All of these rebellions fail, but again the seeds of revolution are still there, and discontent is still widespread All of these rebellions fail, but again the seeds of revolution are still there, and discontent is still widespread

12 Europe in 1848

13 Austrian Empire 9 nationalities, 12 languages, 3 religions 9 nationalities, 12 languages, 3 religions Centered in Vienna, but Budapest and Prague are important cities Centered in Vienna, but Budapest and Prague are important cities Dominated by the German-speaking Austrians Dominated by the German-speaking Austrians Prussia, also German-speaking, goes to war with Austria in 1866 and takes some German-speaking areas Prussia, also German-speaking, goes to war with Austria in 1866 and takes some German-speaking areas Hungary, the other “half” of the Austrian Empire demands equal power Hungary, the other “half” of the Austrian Empire demands equal power After losing war with Prussia, Austria bows to pressure from Hungary and split in to two independent states but with one Emperor After losing war with Prussia, Austria bows to pressure from Hungary and split in to two independent states but with one Emperor

14 Duel Monarchy Each part of the empire now had its own: Each part of the empire now had its own: –Constitution –Bicameral legislature –Government machinery for domestic affairs –Capital (Vienna, Austria; Buda, Hungary) Holding this all together is one monarch Holding this all together is one monarch –A common army, foreign policy, and finance system

15 Satisfied Hungarians but not other nationalities in the empire Satisfied Hungarians but not other nationalities in the empire Simply enabled the German-speaking Austrians and Hungarians to dominate minorities, especially the Slavic peoples Simply enabled the German-speaking Austrians and Hungarians to dominate minorities, especially the Slavic peoples Empire collapses after World War I Empire collapses after World War I

16 After the split

17 Back to France Radicals had been behind the revolutions in 1830 and 1848 all over Europe Radicals had been behind the revolutions in 1830 and 1848 all over Europe Only in France was their main goal the overthrow of the government Only in France was their main goal the overthrow of the government –In other countries, they simply wanted some changes 1830 – France’s King Charles X tries to go back to absolute monarchy 1830 – France’s King Charles X tries to go back to absolute monarchy –Q: What’s absolute monarchy? Riots break out and he flees the country Riots break out and he flees the country

18 Louis-Philippe Louis-Philippe becomes king when Charles flees Louis-Philippe becomes king when Charles flees He was a supporter of liberal reforms He was a supporter of liberal reforms Reigned until 1848 Reigned until 1848 Revolutionary ideals had been simmering, even though LP tried to pass reforms Revolutionary ideals had been simmering, even though LP tried to pass reforms King is overthrown, republic declared King is overthrown, republic declared Very unstable, chaos, violence Very unstable, chaos, violence

19 Second Republic French history is categorized by when it was ruled as a republic French history is categorized by when it was ruled as a republic First Republic – during the French Revolution until Napoleon became emperor (no president, just a council) First Republic – during the French Revolution until Napoleon became emperor (no president, just a council) Second – Second – –Third – –Fourth – –Fifth – 1958 to present

20 Second Republic Chaos leads people to approve of a constitution with a strong president as the head of government Chaos leads people to approve of a constitution with a strong president as the head of government –Very common in future French governments, even today Election in 1848 – Louis-Napoleon, nephew of Napoleon, wins and becomes first president of France Election in 1848 – Louis-Napoleon, nephew of Napoleon, wins and becomes first president of France What do you think he does next? What do you think he does next?

21 A new Emperor Napoleon Declares himself Emperor Napoleon III in 1852 Declares himself Emperor Napoleon III in 1852 –Chose “III” instead of “II” out of respect for Napoleon’s son who had died in 1832 Very popular move with the French who saw him as a strong leader Very popular move with the French who saw him as a strong leader Also believed he would end the instability and the riots Also believed he would end the instability and the riots Napoleon III turned out to be a success Napoleon III turned out to be a success –Government built railroads, factories, and helped industrialize France –Was the first elected president of France, and the last emperor of France

22 Napoleon III

23 War in the Crimea Who would benefit from the break up of the Ottoman Empire? Who would benefit from the break up of the Ottoman Empire? Map—page 623 Map—page 623 Austria, Russia, Britain, and France all want in. Austria, Russia, Britain, and France all want in.

24 War Issue: Right to protect Christian shrines in Palestine—France has it Russia wants it. Issue: Right to protect Christian shrines in Palestine—France has it Russia wants it. Russia invades Moldavia/Wallachia Russia invades Moldavia/Wallachia Ottoman Empire declares war on Russia Ottoman Empire declares war on Russia Britain and France declare war on Russia Britain and France declare war on Russia –Why? Austria remains neutral Austria remains neutral

25 Why? Balance of power Balance of power Dardanelles Dardanelles Naval Control Naval Control Overall, poorly planned and fought Overall, poorly planned and fought

26 Outcome Ultimately Russia is defeated and sues for peace Ultimately Russia is defeated and sues for peace Treaty of Paris (1856) Treaty of Paris (1856) –Russia gives up Bessarabia and accepts Black Sea neutrality –Moldavia and Wallachia under protection of all 5 powers Florence Nightingale Florence Nightingale

27 Significance Broke up long-standing power relationships Broke up long-standing power relationships Destroyed Concert of Europe Destroyed Concert of Europe Austria & Russia enemies (no Austrian help) Austria & Russia enemies (no Austrian help) Russia withdraws for two decades Russia withdraws for two decades Britain pulls back from continental affairs Britain pulls back from continental affairs Austria without friends Austria without friends Situation made it possible for unification of Italy and Germany Situation made it possible for unification of Italy and Germany

28 Russia Not just Russians in the empire Not just Russians in the empire 22 million Ukrainians, 8 million Poles 22 million Ukrainians, 8 million Poles Dozens of other ethnic groups as well Dozens of other ethnic groups as well Alexander III, like many of his predecessors wanted to maintain total control of the empire Alexander III, like many of his predecessors wanted to maintain total control of the empire Russification – forcing Russian culture on all ethnic groups in the empire Russification – forcing Russian culture on all ethnic groups in the empire Backfires and creates nationalism among minority groups Backfires and creates nationalism among minority groups Empire collapses during World War I Empire collapses during World War I

29 Define Nationalism Nationalism is the belief that people’s greatest loyalty should not be to a king, but to a nation of people who share common history and culture. Deep devotion to one’s nation Nationalism is the belief that people’s greatest loyalty should not be to a king, but to a nation of people who share common history and culture. Deep devotion to one’s nation Nationalism blurs the lines in political spectrum (conservative, liberal, radical) Nationalism blurs the lines in political spectrum (conservative, liberal, radical) Appeals to all parts of life: Culture, History, Language, Territory, Nationality, Religion Appeals to all parts of life: Culture, History, Language, Territory, Nationality, Religion


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