Presentation on theme: "UNDERSTANDING THE FORMS, METER, RHYME, AND OTHER ASPECTS OF THE SONNET"— Presentation transcript:
1UNDERSTANDING THE FORMS, METER, RHYME, AND OTHER ASPECTS OF THE SONNET What is a Sonnet?UNDERSTANDING THE FORMS, METER, RHYME, AND OTHER ASPECTS OF THE SONNETMARCH 20, 2012
2Sonnet FormA Sonnet has 14 linesMust be written in iambic pentameterEach line has 10 syllables (or beats)They alternate in an unstressed/ stressed patternA sonnet must follow a specific rhyme scheme, depending on the type of sonnet.Can be about any subject, though they are usually about love or nature.Introduces a problem or question in the beginning, and a resolution is revealed or suggested after the “turn”.The point in the sonnet where the poet changes perspectiveOften caused by a “change of heart”
3Iambic Pentameter: Stress & Meter Consider the sound of the underlined word:1.) Darth Vader decided to crush rebel forces2.) Luke Skywalker will rebel against his father’s wishesEven though rebel is spelled the same, the stress sound makes it different.When we talk, we stress some syllables and leave others “unstressed”.Stressed= Syllables with “long” or “heavy” stressUnstressed= Syllables with “short” or “light” stress
4Stress & MeterIn example #1 the pattern of the word rebel is “stressed” then “unstressed”DARTH Vader deCIDed to CRUSH the REBel SOLDier.In example #2 the pattern of the word rebel is “unstressed” then “stressed”LUKE SKYWALKer WILL reBEL aGAINST his FATHer’s WISHes.When a poem has a recognizable but varying pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables, the poetry is written in verse.
5Italian Sonnet Introduced in the 13th Century, means “little song” Also called a Petrarchan Sonnet after Francesco PetrarchMost of his sonnets are about love, specifically love from afarEmotionally powerful through the use of metaphors14-line lyric poem: Contains an octave (8 lines) and a sestet (6 lines)The turn generally occurs after the octave.The rhyme scheme must begin with abbaabba, and end with either cdcdcd OR cdecde
6Sonnet 90 By: Francesco Petrarch Upon the breeze she spread her golden hairThat in a thousand gentle knots was turned,And the sweet light beyond all measure burnedIn eyes where now that radius is rare;And in her face there seemed to come an airOf pity, true or false, that I discerned:I had love’s tinder in my breast unburned,Was it a wonder if it kindled there?She moved not like a mortal, but as thoughShe bore an angel’s form, her words had thenA sound that simple human voices lack;A heavenly spirit, a living sunWas what I saw; now, if it is not so,The wound’s not healed because the bow grows slack
7Francesco Petrarch (1304-1374) 1.) Read P. 334 & 335 for more background information on Francesco Petrarch, one of the most famous Italian sonnet writersTake notes on:Biographical/ Cultural Background info1. Ex. Composed over 300 poems to a woman whom he never had a relationship with. His Petrarchan Sonnets immortalized her.188.8.131.52.6.2.) Read “Sonnet 292” and answer questions #1-6 onP. 338.
8Edmund Spenser (1552-1599) The Spenserian Sonnet Three quatrains (3 groups of four-lines)Each quatrain addresses the poem’s central idea, thought, or questionThe couplet provides the answerVariation on the English SonnetEnds in a rhyming couplet (2 rhyming lines)Rhyme Scheme: abab bcbc cdcd ee
9Edmund Spenser ( )1.) Read P. 318 & 319 for more background information on Edmund SpencerBiographical/ Cultural Background info184.108.40.206.5.6.2.) Read “Sonnet 30” and “Sonnet 75”
10Spenserean Sonnets 2.) Read “Sonnet 30” and “Sonnet 75” on P. 320-321 Create a chart as you read similar to the example on P. 319.Ex. “Sonnet 75”Part of PoemCentral Idea1st QuatrainWhenever I write my significant other’s name in the sand, the waves wash it away.2nd Quatrain3rd QuatrainCouplet
11English vs. Italian English (Petrarchan) Italian A B A Octave (8) 3 QuatrainsCDEF> The TurnGG Rhyming CoupletA Octave (8)E Sestet (6)
12English Sonnet or Italian Sonnet? I find no peace, and have no arms for war, and fear and hope, and burn and yet I freeze, and fly to heaven, lying on earth's floor, and nothing hold, and all the world I seize. My jailer opens not, nor locks the door, nor binds me to hear, nor will loose my ties; Love kills me not, nor breaks the chains I wear, nor wants me living, nor will grant me ease. I have no tongue, and shout; eyeless, I see; I long to perish, and I beg for aid; I love another, and myself I hate. Weeping I laugh, I feed on misery, by death and life so equally dismayed: for you, my lady, am I in this state.
13English Sonnet or Italian Sonnet? Lines are in the octave (8 lines) and the sestet (6 lines)I find no peace, and have no arms for war, and fear and hope, and burn and yet I freeze, and fly to heaven, lying on earth's floor, and nothing hold, and all the world I seize.My jailer opens not, nor locks the door, nor binds me to hear, nor will loose my ties; Love kills me not, nor breaks the chains I wear, nor wants me living, nor will grant me ease.I have no tongue, and shout; eyeless, I see; I long to perish, and I beg for aid; I love another, and myself I hate.Weeping I laugh, I feed on misery, by death and life so equally dismayed: for you, my lady, am I in this state.
14English Sonnets AKA Shakespearean Sonnet Three quatrains (3 groups of four-lines) and ends in a rhyming couplet (2 lines)Rhyme Scheme: abab cdcd efef ggThe turn is either after 8 lines or 10 lines.Example: P. 326 Sonnet 18
151.) Create a Venn Diagram to Compare and Contrast Shakespeare’s “Sonnet 18” with Spencer’s “Sonnet 75” (P. 321)Take notes about:How does each promise to immortalize his beloved?How is each speaker’s promise connected to the imagry of the poem?Is it ironic that in each sonnet the speaker doesn’t actually name their beloved?
16William ShakespeareHumble Beginnings: born in Stratford-upon-AvonKnown as “the Bard”Attended Stratford Grammar School until he was 14Then he married Anne Hathaway and entered the “lost years”.Wrote about 37 plays and 154 sonnetsShakespeare’s sonnets all featured a male speaker and focused on the theme of love. Other common themes: time, death, and poetry itself.
17More about Shakespeare! Left his family to arrive in London and joined the theater company, Lord Chamberlain’s Men.Earned his money by doing the following:1.) Part owner of the Globe Theater2.) An Actor3.) A PlaywrightGenerally wrote 3 types of plays:1.) Tragedy- Ex. Romeo & Juliet2.) Comedy- Ex. The Taming of the Shrew3.) Historical- Ex. Henry VIII
18Shakespearean Sonnets Recap Shakespearean sonnets were divided into three quatrains and one couplet.Shakespearean sonnets featured a turn, or volta, often around lines 9-11.The rhyme scheme of a Shakespearean sonnet was abab cdcd efef ggThe English sonnet, or Shakespearean sonnet, featured 14 lines of iambic pentameter
19The Globe Theater Roofless= Open Air No Artificial Lighting Plays were performed in the afternoon to take advantage of the sunlight.Plays were written/produced for the general audienceCourtyard surrounded by 3 levels of galleriesSpectators:Wealthy- got benches“Groundlings”- poorer people stood and watched from the ground (the pit)All except for the wealthy were uneducated/ poorBurned down during a production of Henry VIII in Rebuilt the following year.
20The Globe Theater Differences to today’s theater productions: No ScenerySettings were all referenced through dialogueElaborate CostumesPlenty of propsFast-paced productionsOnly MALE actorswould perform
21“Shakespeare in Love”Most characters in the film are based off of real peopleNed and the Admirals MenJohn Webster - went on to become a well-known playwright himself in which gore plays a prominent part.Christopher MarloweA writer who offered a great deal of competition to Shakespeare’s plays. Marlowe's early, untimely death opened up the scene for Shakespeare.
22“Shakespeare in Love”Henslowe and other producers hired playwrights to write their plays.Censorship: The Master of the Revelspower to censor writing & what content appeared on the stageIn the 1590s this was a man called Edmund TilneyThe PlagueIt was immoral for a woman to appear on the stageAlternate EndingDo you think that there really was a muse such as Viola for all of Shakespeare’s works?In the film, do you think that Viola’s boat really sank? Or was he just writing his next play as it appears in the deleted scene?
23Key Terms to Know! Iambic Pentameter Meter Rhyme Scheme Couplet Petrarchan SonnetShakespearean SonnetOctaveSestet
24In-Class ActivityWith a Partner (or on your own if you rather) read the four sonnets on pp and respond to each using the organizer on the board.For only ONE of the 4 sonnets do the following (instead of the organizer):Write the complete text of the sonnetNumber each line of the sonnet in the margin. On the other side, note the rhyme scheme after every line.Dissect the iambic pentameter (10 syllables) for one of the quatrainsIndicate where the VOLTA isList any themes after reading the sonnetAnswer questions #1-9 on p. 332 on the back. This is due Wednesday for an assignment grade.
25Sonnet OrganizerLine #Key Words & ImagerySummary
26Hallmarkean Sonnet Card- Honors Create a “Hallmarkean” sonnet card that demonstrates your knowledge of sonnet structure.Turn this in by Friday, April 12th for a Quiz gradeRequirements:14 line sonnet: 3 quatrains that introduce and extend the poem’s meaning1 couplet that either summarizes or concludes the poemYou will also be graded on your creativity and artwork
27Hallmarkean Sonnet Grade Rubric Quatrain 2 _______/15Quatrain 3 _______/15Couplet _______/10Introduces themeAbab rhymeIambic pentameter-Summarizes or reverses the theme-gg rhyme scheme -Iambic PentameterOverall Effectiveness of poem _______/10Use of Artwork _______/10Total _______/75