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UNDERSTANDING THE FORMS, METER, RHYME, AND OTHER ASPECTS OF THE SONNET MARCH 20, 2012 What is a Sonnet?

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Presentation on theme: "UNDERSTANDING THE FORMS, METER, RHYME, AND OTHER ASPECTS OF THE SONNET MARCH 20, 2012 What is a Sonnet?"— Presentation transcript:

1 UNDERSTANDING THE FORMS, METER, RHYME, AND OTHER ASPECTS OF THE SONNET MARCH 20, 2012 What is a Sonnet?

2 Sonnet Form A Sonnet has 14 lines Must be written in iambic pentameter  Each line has 10 syllables (or beats)  They alternate in an unstressed/ stressed pattern A sonnet must follow a specific rhyme scheme, depending on the type of sonnet. Can be about any subject, though they are usually about love or nature. Introduces a problem or question in the beginning, and a resolution is revealed or suggested after the “turn”.  The point in the sonnet where the poet changes perspective  Often caused by a “change of heart”

3 Iambic Pentameter: Stress & Meter Consider the sound of the underlined word: 1.) Darth Vader decided to crush rebel forces 2.) Luke Skywalker will rebel against his father’s wishes  Even though rebel is spelled the same, the stress sound makes it different. When we talk, we stress some syllables and leave others “unstressed”.  Stressed= Syllables with “long” or “heavy” stress  Unstressed= Syllables with “short” or “light” stress

4 Stress & Meter In example #1 the pattern of the word rebel is “stressed” then “unstressed”  DARTH Vader deCIDed to CRUSH the REBel SOLDier. In example #2 the pattern of the word rebel is “unstressed” then “stressed”  LUKE SKYWALKer WILL reBEL aGAINST his FATHer’s WISHes. When a poem has a recognizable but varying pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables, the poetry is written in verse.

5 Italian Sonnet Introduced in the 13 th Century, means “little song” Also called a Petrarchan Sonnet after Francesco Petrarch  Most of his sonnets are about love, specifically love from afar  Emotionally powerful through the use of metaphors 14-line lyric poem: Contains an octave (8 lines) and a sestet (6 lines) The turn generally occurs after the octave. The rhyme scheme must begin with abbaabba, and end with either cdcdcd OR cdecde

6 Sonnet 90 By: Francesco Petrarch Upon the breeze she spread her golden hair That in a thousand gentle knots was turned, And the sweet light beyond all measure burned In eyes where now that radius is rare; And in her face there seemed to come an air Of pity, true or false, that I discerned: I had love’s tinder in my breast unburned, Was it a wonder if it kindled there? She moved not like a mortal, but as though She bore an angel’s form, her words had then A sound that simple human voices lack; A heavenly spirit, a living sun Was what I saw; now, if it is not so, The wound’s not healed because the bow grows slack

7 Francesco Petrarch ( ) 1.) Read P. 334 & 335 for more background information on Francesco Petrarch, one of the most famous Italian sonnet writers Take notes on:  Biographical/ Cultural Background info  1. Ex. Composed over 300 poems to a woman whom he never had a relationship with. His Petrarchan Sonnets immortalized her.  2.  3.  4.  5.  6. 2.) Read “Sonnet 292” and answer questions #1-6 on P. 338.

8 Edmund Spenser ( ) The Spenserian Sonnet Three quatrains (3 groups of four-lines)  Each quatrain addresses the poem’s central idea, thought, or question  The couplet provides the answer Variation on the English Sonnet Ends in a rhyming couplet (2 rhyming lines) Rhyme Scheme: abab bcbc cdcd ee

9 Edmund Spenser ( ) 1.) Read P. 318 & 319 for more background information on Edmund Spencer  Biographical/ Cultural Background info  1.  2.  3.  4.  5.  6. 2.) Read “Sonnet 30” and “Sonnet 75”

10 Spenserean Sonnets 2.) Read “Sonnet 30” and “Sonnet 75” on P Create a chart as you read similar to the example on P Ex. “Sonnet 75” Part of PoemCentral Idea 1 st QuatrainWhenever I write my significant other’s name in the sand, the waves wash it away. 2 nd Quatrain 3 rd Quatrain Couplet

11 English vs. Italian English (Petrarchan) Italian A B A B 3 Quatrains C D C D E F E F > The Turn G G Rhyming Couplet A B A Octave (8) A B A > The Turn C D E Sestet (6) C D E

12 English Sonnet or Italian Sonnet? I find no peace, and have no arms for war, and fear and hope, and burn and yet I freeze, and fly to heaven, lying on earth's floor, and nothing hold, and all the world I seize. My jailer opens not, nor locks the door, nor binds me to hear, nor will loose my ties; Love kills me not, nor breaks the chains I wear, nor wants me living, nor will grant me ease. I have no tongue, and shout; eyeless, I see; I long to perish, and I beg for aid; I love another, and myself I hate. Weeping I laugh, I feed on misery, by death and life so equally dismayed: for you, my lady, am I in this state.

13 English Sonnet or Italian Sonnet? Lines are in the octave (8 lines) and the sestet (6 lines) I find no peace, and have no arms for war, and fear and hope, and burn and yet I freeze, and fly to heaven, lying on earth's floor, and nothing hold, and all the world I seize. My jailer opens not, nor locks the door, nor binds me to hear, nor will loose my ties; Love kills me not, nor breaks the chains I wear, nor wants me living, nor will grant me ease. I have no tongue, and shout; eyeless, I see; I long to perish, and I beg for aid; I love another, and myself I hate. Weeping I laugh, I feed on misery, by death and life so equally dismayed: for you, my lady, am I in this state.

14 English Sonnets AKA Shakespearean Sonnet Three quatrains (3 groups of four-lines) and ends in a rhyming couplet (2 lines) Rhyme Scheme: abab cdcd efef gg The turn is either after 8 lines or 10 lines. Example: P. 326 Sonnet 18

15 1.) Create a Venn Diagram to Compare and Contrast Shakespeare’s “Sonnet 18” with Spencer’s “Sonnet 75” (P. 321) Take notes about:  How does each promise to immortalize his beloved?  How is each speaker’s promise connected to the imagry of the poem?  Is it ironic that in each sonnet the speaker doesn’t actually name their beloved?

16 William Shakespeare Humble Beginnings: born in Stratford-upon-Avon Known as “the Bard” Attended Stratford Grammar School until he was 14 Then he married Anne Hathaway and entered the “lost years”. Wrote about 37 plays and 154 sonnets Shakespeare’s sonnets all featured a male speaker and focused on the theme of love. Other common themes: time, death, and poetry itself.

17 More about Shakespeare! Left his family to arrive in London and joined the theater company, Lord Chamberlain’s Men. Earned his money by doing the following:  1.) Part owner of the Globe Theater  2.) An Actor  3.) A Playwright Generally wrote 3 types of plays:  1.) Tragedy- Ex. Romeo & Juliet  2.) Comedy- Ex. The Taming of the Shrew  3.) Historical- Ex. Henry VIII

18 Shakespearean Sonnets Recap Shakespearean sonnets were divided into three quatrains and one couplet. Shakespearean sonnets featured a turn, or volta, often around lines The rhyme scheme of a Shakespearean sonnet was abab cdcd efef gg The English sonnet, or Shakespearean sonnet, featured 14 lines of iambic pentameter

19 The Globe Theater Roofless= Open Air No Artificial Lighting  Plays were performed in the afternoon to take advantage of the sunlight. Plays were written/produced for the general audience Courtyard surrounded by 3 levels of galleries Spectators:  Wealthy- got benches  “Groundlings”- poorer people stood and watched from the ground (the pit)  All except for the wealthy were uneducated/ poor Burned down during a production of Henry VIII in Rebuilt the following year.

20 The Globe Theater Differences to today’s theater productions:  No Scenery  Settings were all referenced through dialogue  Elaborate Costumes  Plenty of props  Fast-paced productions  Only MALE actors would perform

21 “Shakespeare in Love” Most characters in the film are based off of real people Ned and the Admirals Men  John Webster - went on to become a well-known playwright himself in which gore plays a prominent part. Christopher Marlowe  A writer who offered a great deal of competition to Shakespeare’s plays. Marlowe's early, untimely death opened up the scene for Shakespeare. 

22 “Shakespeare in Love” Henslowe and other producers hired playwrights to write their plays. Censorship: The Master of the Revels  power to censor writing & what content appeared on the stage  In the 1590s this was a man called Edmund Tilney  The Plague  It was immoral for a woman to appear on the stage Alternate Ending   Do you think that there really was a muse such as Viola for all of Shakespeare’s works?  In the film, do you think that Viola’s boat really sank? Or was he just writing his next play as it appears in the deleted scene?

23 Key Terms to Know! Iambic Pentameter Meter Rhyme Scheme Couplet Petrarchan Sonnet Shakespearean Sonnet Octave Sestet

24 In-Class Activity With a Partner (or on your own if you rather) read the four sonnets on pp and respond to each using the organizer on the board. For only ONE of the 4 sonnets do the following (instead of the organizer):  Write the complete text of the sonnet  Number each line of the sonnet in the margin. On the other side, note the rhyme scheme after every line.  Dissect the iambic pentameter (10 syllables) for one of the quatrains  Indicate where the VOLTA is  List any themes after reading the sonnet Answer questions #1-9 on p. 332 on the back. This is due Wednesday for an assignment grade.

25 Sonnet Organizer Line #Key Words & ImagerySummary

26 Hallmarkean Sonnet Card- Honors Create a “Hallmarkean” sonnet card that demonstrates your knowledge of sonnet structure. Turn this in by Friday, April 12 th for a Quiz grade Requirements:  14 line sonnet: 3 quatrains that introduce and extend the poem’s meaning  1 couplet that either summarizes or concludes the poem  You will also be graded on your creativity and artwork

27 Hallmarkean Sonnet Grade Rubric Quatrain 2 _______/15 Quatrain 3 _______/15 Couplet _______/10 -Introduces theme -Abab rhyme -Iambic pentameter -Introduces theme -Abab rhyme -Iambic pentameter -Introduces theme -Abab rhyme -Iambic pentameter -Summarizes or reverses the theme -gg rhyme scheme -Iambic Pentameter Overall Effectiveness of poem _______/10 Use of Artwork _______/10 Total _______/75


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