Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Darfur Facts, Interpretations, and Possibilities Presentation material for educators and activists developed by: UnderstandingSudan.org latest version:

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Darfur Facts, Interpretations, and Possibilities Presentation material for educators and activists developed by: UnderstandingSudan.org latest version:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Darfur Facts, Interpretations, and Possibilities Presentation material for educators and activists developed by: UnderstandingSudan.org latest version: February 13, 2007 UnderstandingSudan.org University of California, Berkeley © 2007

2 Dedicated to the future of Sudan…
© UNICEF/HQ /Ron Haviv Hamudi Abdullah Mohammed in Kalma IDP Camp, South Darfur ©UNICEF/2004/Westerbeek Cover Photo from UNICEF Darfur Emergency September – October 2005 Report UnderstandingSudan.org University of California, Berkeley © 2007

3 Objectives Complicate the picture
There are many causes to the conflict and humanitarian catastrophe, many actors involved, and much vocabulary to be learned and debated The conflict is not just local, but can be seen as extending over many scales: from farmers and nomads fighting over water to the great powers of the U.N. Security Council negotiating the international order Highlight how discourse shapes understanding and action and encourage self-reflection Ethnicity and race are ideas constructed by people’s actions and discourses Genocide is debated in legal and policy circles Intervention without a context can be a pretext Emphasize Importance of knowing history Importance of committing to long run involvement UnderstandingSudan.org University of California, Berkeley © 2007

4 Geography Darfur1 Sudan in the World Sudan in the Region2
1. rightsmaps.com/html/sudmap1.html and 2. UnderstandingSudan.org University of California, Berkeley © 2007

5 Ethnicity in Darfur: Multiple and Mutable
Academics prefer the phrase “ethnic group” over “tribe” Darfurians tell a variety of histories Darfurians explain their ethnic identities in different ways Identities can become simplified, polarized and cemented through communal and especially sexual violence But experiences as refugees and displacement can have the opposite effect UnderstandingSudan.org University of California, Berkeley © 2007

6 Current Situation in Darfur (October/November 2006)
Multiplicity of rebel groups: Sudan Liberation Army (SLA) fractured; Minni Minawi faction signed Darfur Peace Agreement with government Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) fractures Several groups have formed loose alliance called National Redemption Front Government-backed militia, janjawid, est. 20,000 persons 200,000 deaths estimated overall since February 2003. 218,000 refugees in 12 UNHCR camps in Chad2 Not all refugees in Chad are in camps 2 million persons internally displaced (IDPs)3 4 million persons in need of humanitarian assistance. 3 1. Coalition for International Justice, 5/05; 2. UNICEF, 12/20/05; 3. UN, Darfur Humanitarian Profile, 10/1/06 2. UNHCR Briefing note, 17 November 2006, 3. Darfur Humanitarian Profile, 10/1/06, UnderstandingSudan.org University of California, Berkeley © 2007

7 Five Ways of Seeing the Crisis (‘Framing Stories’)
Anti-government positions Arab supremacism – Arabs against ‘black Africans’ (Musa Hilal) Regime in-fighting by proxy – Turabi versus Beshir and Taha Straight up scorched earth response to rebel threat; Regime has little legitimacy but much oil money, response is massive retaliation that may or may not be controllable- like warlordism Pro-government positions Farmers versus herders because of desertification Me-too spoilers of the main peace agreement UnderstandingSudan.org University of California, Berkeley © 2007

8 Five Ways of Seeing the Crisis
1. Arab supremacism – Arabs against ‘black Africans’ -Little is known about importance of ethnic identities among ordinary persons in Darfur One famous study by Frederick Barth suggested that ethnic labbels were very fluid Some suggest a recent “hardening” of identities Fur, Zaghawa, Masalit, Tunjur, Meidob “farmers” => called by others, in colloquial Arabic: zurga or zunji (translated into English as “black”) Rizeigat, Hamar, Humr, Bani Halba “nomads” => “Arab” (groups claiming descent from Arabian groups and typically practicing pastoralism) -Regional conflict Chad, Libya) in 1970s and 1980s generated Tajamu al-Arabi – Arab Gathering, a group of Darfurians espousing Arab solidarity against other groups  Ideology of supremacy adapted by marginalized Arab (nomadic) groups with Musa Hilal as leader -Encouraged by Islamicist, Arab regime in Khartoum, supported with weapons and mobility, and inflamed by international currents (war on terror, “clash of civilizations”) - UnderstandingSudan.org University of California, Berkeley © 2007

9 Musa Hilal A Janjawiid Leader
Son of Sheikh Hilal Musa, Nazir of Um Julul, sub-clan of Abbala (camel-herding) Rizeigat, claiming descent from Juhayna Arab nomads who came into Darfur from the West between the 14th and 18th Centuries. In 2002 jailed because of violence in Darfur. ©Human Rights Watch, 2004 Government of Sudan released him to lead militia counter-attacks after SLA April 2003 surprise attacks on El Fasher. Claimed in 2004 HRW interview that GOS military officers lead PDF militias. UnderstandingSudan.org University of California, Berkeley © 2007

10 Five Ways of Seeing the Crisis
2. Regime in-fighting by proxy: Hasan el Turabi versus Omar el Beshir and Ali Osman Taha UnderstandingSudan.org University of California, Berkeley © 2007

11 Five Ways of Seeing the Crisis
2. Regime in-fighting by proxy: Turabi versus Beshir and Taha - June 1989 Coup followed by Islamicization -Overthrew government of Prime Minister Sadiq el Mahdi Grandson of Mahdi Leader of Umma Party Turabi’s brother-in-law -Continued civil war with SPLA in the South of the country. UnderstandingSudan.org University of California, Berkeley © 2007

12 The Mahdi Mohamed Ahmed defeated the Turco-Egyptians along with British mercenaries (Charles “Chinese” Gordon”) in He died soon after, but his successor, the Khalifa Abdullah al-Ta’aishi, established an independent state that lasted until British – with Egyptian help – re-conquered much of Sudan in 1898. Mohamed Ahmed (al-Mahdi) defeated British/Egyptians in 1885 UnderstandingSudan.org University of California, Berkeley © 2007

13 Five Ways of Seeing the Crisis
3. Straight up scorched earth response to threat Regime has little legitimacy but much oil money Many soldiers in regular military who had fought in the South came from west so could not easily deploy them in Darfur. Other rebels based in Darfur had in the 1980s overthrown Chad regime Resort to militias out of habit Used PDF’s in South and Nuba Mountains in long running civil war “Jihad” in mid-1990’s in Nuba Mountains Response to rebel threat in western Darfur was proxy militias who may or may not be controllable “Counter-Insurgency on the Cheap”- A. de Waal UnderstandingSudan.org University of California, Berkeley © 2007

14 Anglo-Egyptian Condominium
British defeated Sultan Ali Dinar in 1916 by force and used local nomads as militias in process. The Sultanate of Darfur was then incorporated into Sudan. Aerial bombing was also part of the British campaign to subdue recalcitrant natives. British camel corps UnderstandingSudan.org University of California, Berkeley © 2007

15 SPLA There are reports of child soldiers being used in the Darfur conflict as they were in the conflict in the south of Sudan. UnderstandingSudan.org University of California, Berkeley © 2007

16 Five Ways of Seeing the Crisis
4. Farmers versus herders because of desertification Ecology of region The Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) North to South increase in precipitation Transhumant Routes Variation in arability of terrian and soil The Dar Fur Sultanate had established the Hakura system of land tenure, where tribal leaders controlled large tracts of land 1980’s: Drought/Desertification pressures on land  increase conflicts Rainfall Analysis - Cumulative Amounts in relative terms : % of long term average Sudan Agromet Dekadal Bulletin, Vol 2, Issue 19, September 2004 UnderstandingSudan.org University of California, Berkeley © 2007

17 Five Ways of Seeing the Crisis
5. Me-too spoilers of the main peace agreement Garang and Beshir during peace negotiations, 2003 UnderstandingSudan.org University of California, Berkeley © 2007

18 Powell, Garang and Taha during peace negotiations 2003
UnderstandingSudan.org University of California, Berkeley © 2007

19 Five Ways of Seeing the Crisis
5. Me-too spoilers of the main peace agreement How to get respect: The SPLA got concessions only after 23 years of fighting. The Comprehensive Peace Agreement splits oil revenues between the GOS and the South. What about the rest of the country? US, UK, Norway – specifically choose to limit negotiations to North-South talks SLA in Darfur has origins in SPLA – took “One Sudan” of Garang to heart. Pick up weapon to get attention – February 2003 UnderstandingSudan.org University of California, Berkeley © 2007

20 Why Intervene in Darfur?
Continued child mortality among the displaced Continued insecurity and loss of capability for livelihoods in the camps Insecurity persists with no political solution UnderstandingSudan.org University of California, Berkeley © 2007

21 Variants of Intervention
Peacekeepers and monitors work in cooperation with Sudan government, recognizing sovereignty Safe havens around towns with guaranteed relief corridors, with no government authority – bad idea; Makes displacement more permanent Darfur declared autonomous region under U.N. Authority UnderstandingSudan.org University of California, Berkeley © 2007

22 Current Interventions in Darfur
Humanitarian Intervention 13 UN agencies and 83 NGO’s and Red Cross/Red Crescent Societies 13,869 Staff (12,895 national; 974 international as of Nov. 2005) Peace-monitoring/Protection Forces African Union Mission in Sudan (AMIS) with support from European Union's African Peace Facility, UN and US (though US House just voted to cut funds 1/3/06.) Currently 6,848 personnel in Darfur (peacekeepers, civilian police and military observers). Many say should be double or as much as 45,000. International Political Actions UN Resolutions International Criminal Court – March ‘05 UN SCR 1593 referred situation to ICC AU led peace process – Negotiations in Abuja, Nigeria Five point agenda agreed to: 1) The general principles; 2) security arrangements for an enhanced humanitarian ceasefire; 3) comprehensive ceasefire and final security arrangements: 4) social reintegration; 5) and time line for implementation, January ’06 mini-Summit in Libya -- Now postponed Regional Involvements Chad, President Idriss Deby faces internal threats and supposedly is quite ill; recently diverted money from Chad oil pipeline to military uses, prompting World Bank and donors to cut-off assistance Libya, Egypt, Uganda, DR Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia are involved in complicated ways UnderstandingSudan.org University of California, Berkeley © 2007

23 Further interventions?
Regime Change? Negotiated Peace? Nation building? Multilateralism? UnderstandingSudan.org University of California, Berkeley © 2007

24 Genocide? Declaration triggers intervention? Varying Definitions
1948 Geneva Convention Lay and Customary international usage Political equivocations Political will (e.g. US House defunding AU mission) Uses by parties GOS – selective denigration of Arabs (re – Iraq, Palestine). Double standards: Why not DR Congo? Internalized locally – contributes to ‘hardening’ of identities Mobilizing international action UnderstandingSudan.org University of California, Berkeley © 2007

25 Conclusions Be wary of “African” and “Arab” labels
What histories are they hiding? How are they being used Locally? Internationally? Historically inaccurate, yet incredibly powerful in the present The power of discourse, of labels, of names UnderstandingSudan.org University of California, Berkeley © 2007

26 Conclusions continued
Be committed to the long term Educating ones’ self History, languages, cultures Larger regional scene (Chad, Libya, Uganda – Lord’s Resistance Army) Getting back to “normal” will take a long time. Return of IDPs and Refugees? Truth and Reconciliation? Justice? Re-establishing basic routines of production, reproduction of life. Who will decide access and control over resources? UnderstandingSudan.org University of California, Berkeley © 2007

27 Conclusions continued
Be committed to the long term International aid – how to be part of a sustainable solution? Jan Egelund, Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs and Emergency Relief Coordinator Don’t wait for emergencies, create funds up front beforehand. Tony Blair and G8: Aid commitments to Africa? AU and NEPAD – African solutions? UnderstandingSudan.org University of California, Berkeley © 2007

28 Conclusions continued
Rethink “aid” and “development” Interdependencies Consumption and Production Oil, Gum Arabic, Livestock, Water Political Frameworks War on Terror Small arms proliferation Peace-keeping, Peace-making…. Gendered aspects of violence, justice, recovery? UnderstandingSudan.org University of California, Berkeley © 2007

29 It will be a long, hard road.
UnderstandingSudan.org University of California, Berkeley © 2007


Download ppt "Darfur Facts, Interpretations, and Possibilities Presentation material for educators and activists developed by: UnderstandingSudan.org latest version:"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google