2Chords Under a MelodyWhen a melody sits on top of chords, the texture called homophony is created. Depending on whether the chords are created by instruments or by voices, these chords are called either accompaniment (instruments) or harmonizing (voices).
3Harmonizing Techniques for creating melodic lines that harmonize a melody--1. Find Pitch in the Tonic Chord Sing a parallel melody2. Use Chords of the song Create a Bass Line3. Sing the Words of the song on One Pitch until you need to change
5American Vernacular Music A Rich Blend of Musical Elements brought by Various Ethnic GroupsLeadbellyCountry Blues fromTraditional Southern Mississippi Eastern TexasWoody GuthrieFolk music ofIreland Wales Scotland England
6Joe HillJoe Hill personifies the tradition of political song. Born in Sweden, he migrated to the US and in 1910 joined the Industrial Workers of the World - the "Wobblies".Over the next five years he campaigned for many working class causes. He became a popular song-writer with a gift for capturing the meaning of these causes in song.
7Joe HillIn 1914, during bitter struggles over free speech in Utah, Joe Hill was framed on a murder charge. Despite appeals from President Wilson and the Swedish government, Joe Hill was executed on November 19th, 1915.His body was taken to Chicago where over 30,000 people attended his funeral procession and eulogies were read in nine languages
8Joe HillHill’s music was a uniting force for Industrial Workers of the World (I.W.W.) labor movement.He never recorded his songs, but his music was passed from person to person.Certain songs emerged as anthems for labor movement. They are still sung today.Modern students of music history have identified Hill as one the most influential protest artists in American history, an influence that can be heard in the work of songwriters as diverse as Woody Guthrie and John Lennon.
9Joe Hill Chorus “Joe Hill,” written in 1935, performed by Phil Ochs After meeting Elizabeth Gurley Flynn in the spring of 1915, Joe Hill composed “The Rebel Girl” in tribute to the women who served the Industrial Workers of the World.Chorus“That's the Rebel Girl, that's the Rebel Girl! To the working class she's a precious pearl. She brings courage, pride and joy To the fighting Rebel Boy. We've had girls before, but we need some more In the Industrial Workers of the World. For it's great to fight for freedom With a Rebel Girl.”Flynn with other IWW organizers“Joe Hill,” written in 1935, performed by Phil Ochs
10Current Protest Music John McCutcheon John is very generous in using his singing and song writing talents to support progressive causes. For example, he toured Nicaragua on behalf of a children's literacy program, gave a featured concert at an AFL/CIO Convention and produced three recordings to benefit a community organizing group. Ashcroft’s Army
11Current Protest Music David Rovics David is a singer of anti-imperialist songs who appears frequently at rallies and protests. He has had the honor in recent years of sharing the stage with many fine activists including Amy Goodman, Howard Zinn, Noam Chomsky, Ralph Nader, Cynthia McKinney, Dennis Kucinich, Barbara Lee, Angela Davis, Danny Glover, Desmond Tutu, Michael Moore, Susan Sarandon, Ward Churchill, Jello Biafra, Pete Seeger, Billy Bragg, Bruce Cockburn, the Indigo Girls, and many others.Who Would Jesus Bomb?
12Current Protest Music Pat Humphries and Sandy Opatow Their song “If I Give Your Name ” was the Grand Prize Winner in the Folk Category of the prestigious John Lennon Song Writing Contest. The song sheds light on the silent suffering of family members of undocumented workers lost on 9/11 in the World Trade Center and was one of 12 grand prize winners out of 24,000 entries.In May 2002, NPR featured the story of an underground "folk anthem" that was 'everywhere,' despite its having no commercial airplay and no major or indie label, support. The song was "Swimming to the Other Side" by Pat Humphries. Folk legend Pete Seeger, said, "The powers that be can control the media (but) it's hard to stop a good song Pat's songs will be sung well into the 21st century.”
14This Land is Your Land Written by Woody Guthrie Performed by-- Arlo GuthrieBruce SpringsteenTaj MahalEmmyLou HarrisLittle RichardU2 (Bono)John MellencampPete Seegerand many others
15THIS LAND IS YOUR LAND words and music by Woody Guthrie Chorus:This land is your land, this land is my landFrom California, to the New York IslandFrom the redwood forest, to the gulf stream watersThis land was made for you and meAs I was walking a ribbon of highwayI saw above me an endless skywayI saw below me a golden valleyChorusI've roamed and rambled and I've followed my footstepsTo the sparkling sands of her diamond desertsAnd all around me a voice was soundingThis land was made for you and meChorusThe sun comes shining as I was strollingThe wheat fields waving and the dust clouds rollingThe fog was lifting a voice come chanting
16Original 4, 5, and 6th verses—rarely sung anymore As I was walkin' - I saw a sign thereAnd that sign said - no tress passin'But on the other side.... it didn't say nothin!Now that side was made for you and me!ChorusIn the squares of the city - In the shadow of the steepleNear the relief office - I see my peopleAnd some are grumblin' and some are wonderin'If this land's still made for you and me.Chorus (2x)Nobody living can ever stop meAs I go walkingThat freedom highwayNobody living can make me turn backThis land was made for you and me
17“Leadbelly” -Huddie Ledbetter Born LouisianaRaised - east TexasDied 1949 of Lou Gehrig’s Disease
18Leadbelly’s “parole” song Please, Governor Neff, Be good 'n' kindHave mercy on my great long time...I don't see to save my soulIf I don't get a pardon, try me on a parole...If I had you, Governor Neff, like you got meI'd wake up in the mornin' and I'd set you freeBourgeois BluesHow Long Blues
20Sweet Honey in the Rock Sweet Honey In The Rock is a Grammy Award-winningAfrican American female a cappella ensemble with deep musical roots in the sacred music of the black church -spirituals, hymns, gospel - as well as jazz and blues.
21Bring Me Little Water Sylvie Leadbelly’s version