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5/23/02 DART_NRL.ppt 1 Demonstration of Autonomous Rendezvous Technology (DART) Inter-Agency AR&C Working Group May 22-23, 2002 Chris Calfee DART Project.

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Presentation on theme: "5/23/02 DART_NRL.ppt 1 Demonstration of Autonomous Rendezvous Technology (DART) Inter-Agency AR&C Working Group May 22-23, 2002 Chris Calfee DART Project."— Presentation transcript:

1 5/23/02 DART_NRL.ppt 1 Demonstration of Autonomous Rendezvous Technology (DART) Inter-Agency AR&C Working Group May 22-23, 2002 Chris Calfee DART Project Manager 256-544-5788 DART_NRL.ppt

2 5/23/02 DART_NRL.ppt 2 –Introduction to DART Overview & Objectives Organization & Schedule –DART Mission Description “Chaser” Vehicle - DART “Target” Vehicle - MUBLCOM Launch Vehicle - Pegasus Mission Operations - Flight & Ground System Test Summary Technology Readiness Levels –Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (AVGS) Agenda

3 5/23/02 DART_NRL.ppt 3 Introduction to DART

4 5/23/02 DART_NRL.ppt 4 DART Stands for: Demonstration of Autonomous Rendezvous Technology. DART Is a Flight Demonstration of the Hardware and Software Required to Autonomously Rendezvous with a Satellite (MUBLCOM) Currently in Orbit. –Hardware: Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (AVGS) Heritage: VGS Developed by MSFC for Automated Rendezvous & Capture (AR&C) Project. Flown Twice on Board the Shuttle in an Open- Loop Mode AVGS is next generation system with advanced optics and electronics. Design goals: Longer Range, Lower Power and Weight –Software: Based on Autonomous Rendezvous and Proximity Operations (ARPO) Algorithms Also Developed by NASA/MSFC. Both the AVGS and the ARPO Algorithms Will Become Embedded Technology on Board a Pegasus ELV, Making the DART Vehicle an Extension of the ELV Rather Than an Independent and Isolated Payload Project Overview

5 5/23/02 DART_NRL.ppt 5 Primary Objective: Demonstrate in space Autonomous Rendezvous and Closed Loop Proximity Control Between a Chase Vehicle, DART, and a Passive, Cooperative Target Vehicle, MUBLCOM Raise AVGS/ARPO Technology Readiness Levels (TRL) from a 3/4 to a 7/8 Validate Ground Test Results of the AVGS and ARPO Algorithms Mission Objectives –Transfer from parking orbit to MUBLCOM orbit –Demonstrate Autonomous Proximity Operations While In the Vicinity of the Target Vehicle Using The AVGS V-Bar Approach and Stand-Off to 15 meters Collision Avoidance Maneuver (CAM) Docking Axis Approach and Stand-Off to 5 meters R-Bar Approach and Stand-Off to 50 Meters Autonomous Departure at End Of Mission DART Objectives

6 5/23/02 DART_NRL.ppt 6 –The United States Has Successfully Performed Numerous Rendezvous and Docking Missions in the Past. –The Common Element of All US Rendezvous and Docking is That the Spacecraft Have Always Been Piloted by Astronauts. –Only the Russian Space Program Has Developed and Demonstrated a Routine Autonomous Capability. –The European Space Agency and Japanese Are Developing Similar Technology. –The DART Mission Provides a Key Step in Establishing an Autonomous Rendezvous Capability for the United States. –All 2nd Generation Architectures and AAS Can Benefit From ARPO Technology. –Even Manned/Piloted Vehicles Can Benefit Through Robust System Performance and Reduction of Potential Piloting Errors. Second Generation RLV Relevance

7 5/23/02 DART_NRL.ppt 7 DART Project Overview Schedule

8 5/23/02 DART_NRL.ppt 8 –OSC - Overall Project Integration, Launch Vehicle Buildup & Test, AVGS Development, Test, Manufacture, & Integration, DART Buildup & Test, LV/DART Integration & Test, Launch & Mission Operations – MSFC - Overall Project Management, AR&C Algorithms, AVGS S/W Development, Test Facilities & Support, Mission ops Support – Draper – GNC System, Flight Vehicle S/W – Advanced Optical Systems (AOS) - AVGS Design & Engineering Support – KSC - Launch Services Support – GSFC - IV&V Project Team

9 5/23/02 DART_NRL.ppt 9 Program Planning and Control ArchitectureDefinition Arch. Mgr. Arch. Mgr CTV AAS Bob Armstrong Charlie Dill Pete Rodriguez Steve Davis Chris Crumbly Airframe(LaRC) Manager LSE D. Bowles Julie Fowler Operations(KSC) Manager LSE Scott Huzar Flight Mechanics (MSFC) Manager LSE Scott Jackson Jack Mulqueen IVHM(ARC) Manager Asst. Mgr./LSE Bill Kahle Kevin Flynn NASA Unique (JSC) Manager LSE Dave Leestma Consultants J. SeemannM. Stiles Steve Creech, Manager Rose Allen, Manager Jerry Cook, Deputy Subsystems(GRC) Manager LSE Mike Skor Tom Hill Program Integration & Risk Management Danny Davis, Manager Bart Graham, Deputy Propulsion(MSFC) Manager Dep. Mgr. Lead Sys. Engr. Garry Lyles Steve Richards George Young Flt. Demos & Exp. Integ. (MSFC) Susan Turner 2nd Generation RLV Organization Procurement Legal Sys. Engineering, & Integration Dale Thomas, Manager Chuck Smith, Deputy Program Office Manager Deputy Quality Assurance Man. Chief Engineer Tech. Asst. ESA MSA Dennis Smith Dan Dumbacher C. Chesser Robert Hughes B. Morris Jill Holland Judy Dunn E.G. F. Wojtalik, G. Oliver, B. Lindstrom Ext. Rqmts. Assessment Team Manager, acting Deputy

10 5/23/02 DART_NRL.ppt 10 Flight Demos & Experiment Integration Organization DART Chris Calfee Flt. Demos & Exp. Integ. Susan Turner Kistler K-1 Jimmy Lee X-37 Jeff Sexton

11 5/23/02 DART_NRL.ppt 11 DART Chris Calfee, Manager Lead Software Engineer Meg Stroud AVGS/Pegasus Lead Engineer Keith Higginbotham Asst. DART Manager Dexter Waldrep Lead Systems Engineer Mark Krome Contracts Earl Pendley Penny Battles Carol Greenwood S&MA Van Strickland Marcie Kennedy Business Jimmy Black Rich Leonard Louise Hamaker Pegasus Procurement Wanda Harding - KSC Flt. Demos & Exp. Integ. Susan Turner, Manager 2nd Generation RLV Program Dennis Smith, Manager DART Organization

12 5/23/02 DART_NRL.ppt 12 OSC DART Organization Chart

13 5/23/02 DART_NRL.ppt 13 DART Mission Description

14 5/23/02 DART_NRL.ppt 14 Mission Overview Description of DART Vehicle Proximity Operations Reaction Control System –16 N 2 thrusters with dedicated 29 kg (64 lbm) Tank –6-axis attitude and translational control during proximity operations Lithium Ion Battery Powered Avionics and Transient Power Busses UHF Antenna & Receiver System SIGI INS and Standalone GPS Navigation Solution Advance Video Guidance Sensor Maximum wet mass: 362.3 Kg (798 lbm) –Assuming Pegasus XL launch to 500 km orbit at 97.7° inclination Hydrazine Auxiliary Propulsion System (HAPS) –3 thrusters with 56.9 Kg (125 lbm) supply –Delta-velocity, pitch and yaw attitude Pegasus Reaction Control System –6 nitrogen thrusters with dedicated 5.8 Kg (13 lbm) supply –3-axis attitude control during rendezvous and retirement

15 5/23/02 DART_NRL.ppt 15 Within Pegasus Stage 4 Avionics Structure is Top of HAPS Tank, Two RCS Tanks, SIGI –Mostly Heritage Components and Layout for Stage 4 Within AVGS Bus Structure is Top of Proximity Ops RCS Tank –Most New Components Mounted to Exterior of Cylindrical Structure, Forward AVGS Panel Pegasus Stage 4 AVGS Bus DART Expanded View Forward Looking Aft DART Mechanical Configuration

16 5/23/02 DART_NRL.ppt 16 HAPS Tank, Tubing, and Other Components Proximity Ops RCS Tank, Tubing, Other Components DART Expanded View Aft Looking Forward Batteries MACH DART Mechanical Configuration, Cont

17 5/23/02 DART_NRL.ppt 17 Description of MUBLCOM Target Vehicle Launched in 1999 aboard a Pegasus Rocket Currently in a nearly circular orbit at 765 km Near-polar orbit with 97.7  inclination (nearly sun-synchronous) Gravity-gradient stabilized with momentum wheels for yaw control Long and short-range retroreflectors mounted ~parallel to velocity vector Far-range retroreflectors mounted along vehicle z-axis (nadir pointing)

18 5/23/02 DART_NRL.ppt 18 MUBLCOM

19 5/23/02 DART_NRL.ppt 19 Expanded View of Pegasus w/DART

20 5/23/02 DART_NRL.ppt 20 Mission Overview DART Launch Operations Overview Launch will deliver DART to a circular orbit at 500 Km altitude Ascending node and inclination matching those of the MUBLCOM satellite Hydrazine budgeted to allow Pegasus use of HAPS to correct launch dispersions ±30 second drop window assumed –Minimizes ascending node errors –Drop position accuracy relaxed to allow better drop time accuracy Launch opportunity every 3-5 days –Phasing with MUBLCOM at launch constrained to less than 100° Pegasus launch from Vandenburg AFB, CA on 4/15/04

21 5/23/02 DART_NRL.ppt 21 Mission Overview DART Rendezvous Operations Overview Rendezvous algorithms employ Pegasus PEG guidance –PEG functionality extended with rendezvous phasing calculations Ascending node and inclination errors corrected during transfer using HAPS Early orbit checkout DART “catches up” to target vehicle at ~13 deg/hour –Up to 7.5 hours spent in Phasing orbit 1 Hohmann transfer from 500 Km to ~755 Km altitude –Rendezvous ends with DART 40 Km behind and 7.5 Km beneath MUBLCOM

22 5/23/02 DART_NRL.ppt 22 Mission Overview DART DRM Timeline Worst-case phasing at launch assumed –7+ hours in phasing orbit 1 Proximity operations begin 8 hours into the mission –8 hours in proximity operations –Includes 3.5 hours of station keeping at various positions Retirement burn 16.5 hours into mission –7.5 hour time margin remaining

23 5/23/02 DART_NRL.ppt 23 Proximity Sensor (AVGS) Phasing Launch Ascent Orbit Transfer Free Drift Start of Proximity Operations Target Vehicle DART Retirement Burn GPS State Vector Differencing (Propagated Target State) GPS State Vector Differencing (Space-to-Space Target State) DART Mission Profile Altitude(km) Communications Range (~100 km) Visible Range (~500 m) Far RangeMid RangeNear Range 500 770 Note: Altitude and Ranges are not to scale 755 -3km MET From L1011 Drop 00:09:00 08:00:00 11:00:0016:30:00

24 5/23/02 DART_NRL.ppt 24 Last HAPS Burn 40 Km behind 7.5 Km below End of Rendezvous Start of Prox Ops 300 m 5 m 3 Km 50 m 150 m +RBar +VBar 1 Km 500 m 15 m 100 m CAM 300 m Retirement Burn DART Proximity Operations Flight Profile Free Drift Orbit Transfer Velocity Vector Orbital Motion Baseline Profile Extended Profile MUBLCOM

25 5/23/02 DART_NRL.ppt 25 DART-MUBLCOM Rendezvous Visual

26 5/23/02 DART_NRL.ppt 26 Mission Overview DART DRM Ground Station Coverage Three ground stations selected for telemetry coverage (VAFB for launch only) –Poker Flats, Alaska –McMurdo, Antarctica –Svalbard, Norway Polar stations provide at least two telemetry downlink opportunities per orbit

27 5/23/02 DART_NRL.ppt 27 DART Testing Desktop Simulation – Performed at OSC – Psuedo Flight Code (CMDH, GN&C,Telemetry) Hardware in the Loop – Static – Performed at OSC – Flight Computer, GPS, INS, UHF, AVGS Hardware in the Loop – Dynamic – Performed at MSFC Flight Robotics Lab – Flight Computer, GPS, INS, AVGS

28 Start: AVGS and ARPO at TRL 4 Finish: AVGS and ARPO at TRL 7/8 Addressing SLI Program Goals: Increasing Technology Readiness Level

29 5/23/02 DART_NRL.ppt 29 Addressing SLI Program Goals: ARPO Technology Readiness Levels

30 5/23/02 DART_NRL.ppt 30 Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (AVGS)


32 5/23/02 DART_NRL.ppt 32 Proximity Sensor Comparison to Flight proven Unit +/-0.12 mm position, accuracy +/-0.10 mm/s velocity, accuracy +/-0.10 deg attitude, accuracy +/-0.30 cm position, accuracy +/-0.30 cm/s velocity, accuracy +/-0.25 deg attitude, accuracy 1-5 km range (spot mode) 300-500 m (full 6DOF) 150 m range Performance (Range & Target Specific) 8 watts power60 watts power Single DSP board in sensor boxSignal processing in separate VME Single box (20 lbs) (10” X 12” X 8”) 2 boxes (50 lbs total) Electronics 50 Hz update5 Hz update Digital CMOS Camera (resolution 1000 X 1000) Analog Camera (resolution 640 X 480) Camera Lasers in optical path (Increased laser return) Laser not in optical path 4 lasers (reduced complexity and power) 8 lasers Optics AVGSVGS

33 5/23/02 DART_NRL.ppt 33 AVGS Functional Flow From “On-Orbit Testing of the Video Guidance Sensor” by Richard T. Howard, Thomas C Bryan, Michael L. Book, NASA/MSFC

34 5/23/02 DART_NRL.ppt 34 –Brassboard Development Phase (6/1/01 - 1/28/02) Parts and Material Review –EEE Parts Availability –Outgasssing –Radiation Environment Analysis Begin AVGS Software Development Evaluate Optics Performance – Initial Prototype (IP) Development Phase (6/1/01 - 3/29/02) Power Supply Design Electronics Packaging Concepts Initial Structural Analysis Initial Electrical Analysis Initial Thermal Analysis Radiation Hardening Continue AVGS Software Development AVGS Design, Analysis and Test

35 5/23/02 DART_NRL.ppt 35 –Final Prototype (FP) Development Phase (4/1/02 - 10/18/02) 2 Prototype Units (Form, Fit & Function) FMEA Update Thermal Analysis Finalize Electronic Packaging Concepts Final Design for Radiation Environment Finalize Structural Analysis Finalize Electrical Analysis Begin AVGS Software functional Verification and Validation – Qualification Unit Development Phase (9/23/02 - 5/29/03) Acceptance Testing (random vibe and thermal vac) Qualification Testing (EMI/EMC, Vibe, Shock, Thermal) AVGS Flight Load Software Delivery – Flight Unit Development Phase (5/1/03 - 11/17/03) 3 Units Acceptance Testing (random vibe and thermal vac) Final AVGS Software Load Delivery (Jan04) AVGS Design, Analysis and Test (Cont)

36 5/23/02 DART_NRL.ppt 36 New AVGS Initial Proto-Type Unit

37 5/23/02 DART_NRL.ppt 37 AVGS Development Breadboard Sensor Optics

38 5/23/02 DART_NRL.ppt 38 Addressing SLI Program Goals: DART-AVGS Technology Readiness Levels

39 5/23/02 DART_NRL.ppt 39 DART POP02 Summary by Center NOA $K

40 5/23/02 DART_NRL.ppt 40 a. Application of Neural Networks to Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking of Space Vehicles, Richard W. Dabney, AIAA Paper 92-1516, AIAA Space Programs and Technologies Conference, March 24-27, 1992, Huntsville, AL. b.United States Patent Number 5,109,345, CLOSED-LOOP AUTONOMOUS DOCKING SYSTEM, Richard W. Dabney and Richard T. Howard, April 28, 1992. c.A Plan for Spacecraft Automated Rendezvous, A. W. Deaton, J. J. Lomas, and L. D. Mullins, NASA TM-108385, October 1992. d.Guidance and Targeting Simulation for Automated Rendezvous, James J. Lomas, John M. Hanson, and M. Wade Shrader, AAS Paper 94-162, AAS/AIAA Spaceflight Mechanics Meeting, February 14 - 16, 1994, Cocoa Beach, FL. e.Guidance Schemes for Automated Terminal Rendezvous, John M. Hanson and Alva W. Deaton, AAS Paper 94-163, AAS/AIAA Spaceflight Mechanics Meeting, February 14 - 16, 1994, Cocoa Beach, FL. f.A Solution to the 3 Point Inverse Perspective Problem for Automated Rendezvous and Capture, Richard Dabney and Philip Calhoun, MSFC Memorandum ED13-94- 21, September 30, 1994. g.Cargo Transfer Vehicle (CTV) Reference Design for Autonomous Rendezvous and Capture Simulations, Richard Dabney, MSFC Memorandum ED13-94-22, October 26, 1994. h.MSFC-RQMT-2371 B, Automated Rendezvous and Capture (AR&C) System Requirements Document (SRD), Craig A. Cruzen, July 1, 1996. i.MSFC Flight Robotics Laboratory (FRL) Description, A World Class Simulation and Test Facility, Linda L. Brewster, Team Lead, Orbital Systems & Robotics Team, MSFC, November 1997. j.AR&C Ground Program System Test Plan, D. L. Kelley, Hernandez Engineering, December 19, 1997. k.MSFC Automated Rendezvous and Capture Simulation (MARCSIM) Description, Linda L. Brewster, Team Lead, Orbital Systems & Robotics Team, and Dave W. Allen, Team Lead, Simulation Software Team, MSFC, April 1998. l.Active Sensor System for Automatic Rendezvous and Docking, Richard T. Howard, Thomas C. Bryan, Michael L. Book, and John L. Jackson, Working Paper. m.Video Guidance Sensor Flight Experiment Results, Richard T. Howard, Thomas C. Bryan, and Michael L. Book, Working Paper. n.Automatic Docking System Sensor Analysis & Mission Performance, John L. Jackson, Richard T. Howard, Helen J. Cole, and Ronald A. Belz, Working Paper. Automated Rendezvous and Capture Documentation Technical Publications

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