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Lincoln’s Legacy Abraham Lincoln as Role Model for Public Managers.

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Presentation on theme: "Lincoln’s Legacy Abraham Lincoln as Role Model for Public Managers."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lincoln’s Legacy Abraham Lincoln as Role Model for Public Managers

2 Lincoln’s Legacy Why Abraham Lincoln? Popular in Pop Culture Popular in Pop Culture Popular Leadership Studies Popular Leadership Studies Popular in Business Literature Popular in Business Literature

3 Lincoln’s Legacy Why Abraham Lincoln?

4 Lincoln’s Legacy Why Abraham Lincoln? Popular in Pop Culture Popular in Pop Culture Popular Leadership Studies Popular Leadership Studies Popular in Business Literature Popular in Business Literature

5 Lincoln’s Legacy Public vs. Private Management Political Environment Political Environment Organizational Purposes Organizational Purposes Personnel Challenges Personnel Challenges “There are significant differences in leadership behavior between public and private managers” Jon Aarum Andersen 2010

6 Lincoln’s Legacy Conservatorship and Management Preserving Institutional Integrity Conserving Values Conserving Values Conserving Mission Conserving Mission Conserving Support Conserving Support “To say that an institution has integrity is to suggest that it is faithful to the functions, values, and distinctive set of unifying principles that define its special competence and character.” -Dr. Larry D. Terry

7 Lincoln’s Legacy Law of the Situation Problems “should be resolved according to the facts of the situation and not by reference to the relative superiority of any party over the other. In other words, search for solutions to management problems should be governed by the demands of the situation and not by reference to any authority or principle.” -Mary Kay Follett ( )

8 Lincoln’s Legacy Lincoln’s Purposes “The war continues. In considering the policy to be adopted for suppressing the insurrection, I have been anxious and careful that the inevitable conflict for this purpose shall not degenerate into a violent and remorseless revolutionary struggle. I have, therefore, in every case, thought it proper to keep the integrity of the Union prominent as the primary object of the contest on our part...” Lincoln’s First State of the Union Address, December

9 Lincoln’s Legacy Lincoln’s Formula Institutional Integrity + Law of the Situation = Effective Public Management (Leadership)

10 Lincoln’s Legacy Lincoln and McCllelan:

11 Lincoln’s Legacy Two Snubs McClellan’s House McClellan’s House The White House The White House “Never mind. I will hold McClellan’s horse if he will just bring us successes.”

12 Lincoln’s Legacy Telegram to Stanton and Lincoln: “Our men... Were overwhelmed by vastly superior numbers... The loss on both sides is terrible... Had I 20,000 or even 10,000 fresh troops to use tomorrow I could take Richmond, but I have not a man in reserve... If we have lost the day we have yet preserved our honor, and no one need blush for the Army of the Potomac... You must send me very large reinforcements and send them at once... As it is, the Government must no and cannot hold me responsible for the result. I have seen too many dead and wounded comrades to feel otherwise than that the Government has not sustained this army. I you do not do so now the game is lost. If I save this army now, I tell you plainly that I owe no thanks to you or any other persons in Washington. You have done your best to sacrifice this army.” General George B. McClellan June 28, 1862 Battle of Gaines’ Mill

13 Lincoln’s Legacy Lincoln’s Response: “Save your army at all events. Will send reinforcements as fast as we can. Of course they can not reach you today, tomorrow or the next day. I have not said you were ungenerous for saying you needed reinforcement. I thought you were ungenerous in assuming that I did not send them as fast as I could. I feel any misfortune to you and your Army quite as keenly as you feel it yourself. It is the nature of the case, and neither you or the government that is to blame.” A. Lincoln to G. McCllelan on June 28, 1862

14 Lincoln’s Legacy Harrison Landing Letter – July 7, 1862

15 Lincoln’s Legacy Lincoln’s Response: “ He as acted badly in the matter, but we must use the tools we have.” Lincoln to John Hay 1862 Lincoln: Lincoln: Well... Put yourself in my place for a moment, if I relieve McClellan whom shall I put in command? Senator Wade: Senator Wade: Why, anybody. Lincoln: Lincoln: Wade, “anybody” will do for you, but not for me. I must have somebody.

16 Lincoln’s Legacy Lincoln’s Formula Institutional Integrity + Law of the Situation = Effective Public Management (Leadership)

17 Lincoln’s Legacy Lincoln and General Hooker:

18 Lincoln’s Legacy Conserving Values Executive Mansion Washington January 26, 1863 Major General Hooker: General, I have placed you at the head of the Army of the Potomac. Of course, I have done this upon what appears to me to be sufficient reasons. And yet I think it best for you to know that there are some things in regard to which, I am not quite satisfied with you. I believe you to be a brave and skillful soldier, which, of course, I like. I also believe you do not mix politics with your profession, in which you are right. You have confidence in yourself, which is valuable, if not an indispensable quality. You are ambitious, which, within reasonable bounds, does good rather than harm. But I think that during Gen. Burnside’s command of the Army, you have taken counsel of your ambition, and thwarted him as much as you could, in which you did a great wrong to the country, and to a most meritorious and honorable brother officer. I have heard, in such a way as to believe it, of your recently saying that both the Army and the Government needed a Dictator. Of course it was not for this, but in spite of it, that I have given you the command. Only those generals who gain successes, can set up dictators. What I now ask of you is military success, and I will risk the dictatorship. The government will support you to the utmost of its ability, which is neither more nor less than it has done and will do for all commanders. I much fear that the spirit which you have aided to infuse into the Army, of criticizing their Commander, and withholding confidence from him, will not turn upon you. I shall assist you as far as I can, to put it down. Neither you, nor Napoleon, if here were alive again, could get any good out of an army, while such a spirit prevails in it. And now, beware of rashness. Beware of rashness, but with energy, and sleepless vigilance, go forward, and give us victories. Yours very truly A. Lincoln

19 Lincoln’s Legacy Lincoln’s Response: “When Lincoln was dissatisfied with a general, he liked to see the officer personally, it that was possible, so that in face to face discussion he could find out what was wrong.” T. Harry Williams “Lincoln and his Generals”

20 Lincoln’s Legacy Lincoln and John C. Fremont:

21 Lincoln’s Legacy Conserving Support On August 30 th, 1861 Commander of the West John C. Fremont declared martial law and declared instant emancipation of the slaves of all disloyal Missouri residents. He also declares that anybody seen with a weapon as part of opposition will be shot. On August 30 th, 1861 Commander of the West John C. Fremont declared martial law and declared instant emancipation of the slaves of all disloyal Missouri residents. He also declares that anybody seen with a weapon as part of opposition will be shot.

22 Lincoln’s Legacy Lincoln’s Formula Institutional Integrity + Law of the Situation = Effective Public Management (Leadership)

23 Lincoln’s Legacy Conserving Support To John C. Fremont Private and Confidential Washington D.C. Sept My Dear Sir: Two points in your proclamation of August 30th give me some anxiety. First, should you shoot a man, according to the proclamation, the Confederates would very certainly shoot our best man in their hands in retaliation; and so, man for man, indefinitely. It is therefore my order that you allow no man to be shot, under the proclamation, without first having my approbation or consent. Secondly, I think there is great danger that the closing paragraph, in relation to the confiscation of property, and the liberating slaves of traitorous owners, will alarm our Southern Union friends, and turn them against us perhaps ruin our rather fair prospect for Kentucky. Allow me therefore to ask, that you will as of your own motion, modify that paragraph so as to conform to the first and fourth sections of the act of Congress, entitled, "An act to confiscate property used for insurrectionary purposes," approved August, 6th, 1861, and a copy of which act I herewith send you. This letter is written in a spirit of caution and not of censure. Lincoln also sent Fremont a copy of the Confiscation Act

24 Lincoln’s Legacy Conserving Support Fremont thinks about it for few days and responds to Lincoln in the following way: “I have to ask that you will openly direct me to make the correction. The implied censure will be recived [sic] by me as a soldier always should the reprimand of his chief. If I were to retract of my own accord it would imply that I myself thought it wrong and that I had acted without the reflection which the gravity of the point demanded. But I did not do so. I acted with full deliberation and upon the certain conviction that it was a measure right and necessary, and I think so still.”

25 Lincoln’s Legacy Conserving Support Here is part of Lincoln’s Response: “Your answer, just received, expresses the preference on your part, that I should make an open order for the modification, which I very cheerfully do.” Public outrage resulted in the North aimed at Lincoln. Kentuckians were threatening to join the Confederacy. “I was so assured, as to think it probable that the very arms we had furnished Kentucky would be turned against us. I think to lose Kentucky is nearly the same as to lose the whole game. Kentucky gone, we can not hold Missouri, nor, as I think, Maryland. These all against us, the job on our hands is too large for us. We would as well consent to separation at once, including the surrender of this capitol.” As a result of the modification Kentucky’s legislature abandoned neutrality and called for 40,000 volunteers for the Union. Missouri, Delaware, and Maryland all remained Neutral.

26 Lincoln’s Legacy Lincoln and Salmon P. Chase:

27 Lincoln’s Legacy Lincoln and Salmon P. Chase:

28 Lincoln’s Legacy Conserving Mission Chase thought he would, and desperately wanted to, be elected president in 1860 and pursued this surreptitiously as a member of Lincoln’s Cabinet in 1864 “If we had an administration in the first sense of the word guided by a bold, resolute, farseeing, & active mind, guided by an honest, earnest heart. But this we have not. Oh! For energy & economy in the management of the war.” -Chase letter to the editor of the Cincinnati Gazette Lincoln was well aware of Chase’s scheming Although Lincoln was disappointed in Chase’s character he allowed it as a “chin-fly.” “the president has always treated me with such personal kindness and has always manifested such fairness and integrity of purpose, that I have not found myself free to throw up my trust... So I still work on.” “Moreover, [Lincoln] had no thought of dismissing Chase while he was hard at work raising the resources needed to support the immense Union Army.” Doris Kearns Goodwin

29 Lincoln’s Legacy Conserving Mission Pomeroy Committee: Sent a pamphlet/letter out trying to gain support for Chase for the Presidency in It got leaked to the press. Chase was fully aware of their actions though he denied it at the time. Panicked, Chase sent Lincoln a letter apologizing and disavowing any knowledge of the pamphlet. “I shall do nothing in malice. What I deal with is too vast for malicious dealing.” -Lincoln, 1862

30 Lincoln’s Legacy Conserving Mission Executive Mansion Washington, February My Dear Sir: I would have taken time to answer yours of the 22 nd sooner, only that I did not suppose any evil could result from the delay, especially as, by a note, I promptly acknowledged the receipt of yours, and promised a fuller answer. Now, on consideration, I find there is really very little to say. My knowledge of Mr. Pomeroy’s letter having been made public came to me only the day you wrote; but I had, in spite of myself, known of its existence several days before. I have not yet read it, and I think I shall not. I was not shocked, or surprised by the appearance of the letter, because I had had knowledge of Mr. Pomeroy’s Committee, and of secret issues which I supposed came from it, and of secret agents who supposed were sent out by it, for several weeks. I have known just as little of these things as my own friends have allowed me to know. They bring the documents to me, but I do not read them- they tell me what they think fit to tell me, but I do not inquire for more. I fully concur with you that neither of us can be justly held responsible for what our respective friends may do without our instigation, or with my countenance. Whether you shall remain at the head of the Treasury Department is a question which I will not allow myself to consider from any stand-point other than my judgment of the public service; and in that view I do not perceive occasion for a change. Yours Truly “I shall do nothing in malice. What I deal with is too vast for malicious dealing.” -Lincoln, 1862

31 Lincoln’s Legacy Conserving Mission Lincoln would accept Chase’s resignation on June 30, 1864 Executive Mansion Washington, June “Your resignation of the office of Secretary of the Treasury sent me yesterday, is accepted. Of all I have said in commendation of your ability and fidelity, I have nothing to unsay; and yet you and I have reached a point of mutual embarrassment in our official relation which it seems can not be overcome, or longer sustained, consistently with the public service.” “And yet there is not a man in the Union who would make as good a chief justice as Chase, and if I have the opportunity, I will make him Chief Justice of the United States.” -Lincoln to Treasury Registrar Lucius Chittenden “I shall do nothing in malice. What I deal with is too vast for malicious dealing.” -Lincoln, 1862 “Lincoln must move upon a higher plane and be influenced by loftier motives than any man.” Lucius Chittenden

32 Lincoln’s Legacy Lincoln’s Formula Institutional Integrity + Law of the Situation = Effective Public Management (Leadership)

33 Lincoln’s Legacy Lincoln and Grant/Sherman:

34 Lincoln’s Legacy Lincoln and Grant/Sherman:

35 Lincoln’s Legacy What happens when there’s trust... Delegation Support Appreciation “all he wanted or had ever wanted was some one who would take the responsibility and act, and call on him for all the assistance needed, pledging himself to use all the power of the government in rendering such assistance.” “The particulars of your plans I neither know, or seek to know. You are vigilant and self-reliant; and, pleased with this, I wish not to obtrude any constraints or restraints upon you.” “He doesn’t worry and bother me. He isn’t shrieking for reinforcements all the time. He takes what troops we can safely give him... and Does the best he can with we he has got.” -Why Lincoln liked and trusted Grant

36 Lincoln’s Legacy What happens when there’s trust... Delegation Appreciation Support Once Grant offended Stanton by withdrawing too many men from the fortifications of Washington, and both men too their cases to the White House. After hearing them out Lincoln told his Secretary of War: “You and I, Mr. Stanton, have been trying to boss this job, and we have not succeeded very well with it. We have sent across the mountains for Mr. Grant, as Mrs. Grant calls him. To relieve us, and I think we had better leave him alone to do as he pleases.” David Herbert Donald, Lincoln

37 Lincoln’s Legacy What happens when there’s trust... Executive Mansion, Washington DC September 19, 1864 Major General Sherman, Indiana is the only important State, voting in October, whose soldiers cannot vote in the field. Any thing you can safely do to let her soldiers, or any part of them, go home and vote at the State election, will be greatly in point. They need not remain for the Presidential election, but may return to you at once. This is, in no sense, an order but is merely intended to impress you with the importance, to the army itself, of your doing all you safely can, yourself being the judge if what you can safely do. Yours Truly Executive Mansion, Washington DC December 26, 1864 My dear General Sherman. Many, many thanks for your Christmas gift- the capture of Savannah. When you were leaving Atlanta for the Atlantic coast, I was anxious, if not fearful; but feeling that you were the better judge, and remembering that nothing risked, nothing gained, I did not interfere. Now, the undertaking being a success, the honor is all yours; for I believe none of us went farther to acquiesce... But what next? I supposed it will be safer if I leave Gen. Grant and yourself to decide. Please make my grateful acknowledgements to your whole army, officers, and men. Yours very truly

38 Lincoln’s Legacy Lincoln’s Formula Institutional Integrity + Law of the Situation = Effective Public Management (Leadership)

39 Lincoln’s Legacy “Understanding the spirit of our institutions to aim at the elevation of men, I am opposed to whatever tends to degrade them.” -Abraham Lincoln May 17, 1859

40 Lincoln’s Legacy Continue the Conversation on Linked In


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