Presentation on theme: "The Genetic Material-DNA - and it’s Role Where is the genetic material stored? Before 1930, this was not clear… Hammerling in Germany studied the small."— Presentation transcript:
The Genetic Material-DNA - and it’s Role Where is the genetic material stored? Before 1930, this was not clear… Hammerling in Germany studied the small green algae, Acetabularia to find out
Acetabularia Cap Stalk Foot
Acetabularia Cut off cap….new one grows Cut off foot…no new growth Hammerling hypothesized the information for growth & development resides in the foot. AND… the nucleus resides in the foot
Acetabularia… Transplantation Experiments In replacing caps and feet between species, Hammerling found that the nucleus- containing foot was the determining factor.
But there were problems with believing that the nucleus is the site for genetic material It contains primarily DNA and there’s just not enough variability in DNA to explain all of life!!! So many still believed proteins must contain the genetic code…
Hershey-Chase Experiment 1952 Worked with viruses that attacked bacteria…called Bacteriophage Composed of only protein coat & DNA Look like bizarre spacecraft... DNA Protein Coat
Bacteriophage Life cycle includes attacking bacteria cell and injecting its genetic material inside…producing thousands of new viruses Text pg. 201 If virus has only protein and DNA, one is the candidate genetic material How to determine which? DNA Protein Coat Bacteria cell
Hershey-Chase Experiment 1952 In 1952, Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase conducted a series of experiments to determine whether protein or DNA was the hereditary material. By labeling DNA and protein with different radioisotopes, they would be able to determine which chemical (DNA or protein) was getting into the bacteria. And such material must be the hereditary material. Since DNA contains Phosphorous (P) but no Sulfur (S), they tagged the DNA with radioactive Phosphorous-32. Conversely, protein lacks P but does have S, thus it could be tagged with radioactive Sulfur-35.
Hershey-Chase Experiment Alfred Hershey & Martha Chase labeled the Bacteriophage protein with radioactive Sulphur ( 35 S) and the DNA with radioactive Phosphorous ( 32 P) Later…The newly formed viruses inside the cell had only 32 P label.
Therefore: DNA is the Genetic Material Structure of DNA: A Review… Made of Nucleotide units: –Ribose sugar (5C sugar) –Phosphorous group (-PO 4 ) –Nitrogen-containing base (A,G,C,T) Nucleotides are linked together by covalent (phosphodiester) bonds Text pg. 205
DNA Structure Two anti-parallel nucleotide strands held together by H-bonds And twisted together to form a helical structure Text pg. 204
How DNA Replicates A.. T G... C T.. A AT C G AT TA G C 5’ 3’
DNA Replication An enzyme termed DNA Polymerase synthesizes new DNA from original in a 5’ to 3’ direction (the end with a free –OH group) DNA replication results in two new complementary strands of DNA…. One of each is from original and one new…..semi- conservative replication 3’ 5’ New nucleotides can Only add to this end
AT C G AT TA G C 5’ AT C G AT TA G C 3’ C T A C A T G DNA Polymerase 5’ 3’
DNA replication involves a great many building blocks, enzymes and a great deal of ATP energy. DNA replication in humans occurs at a rate of 50 nucleotides per second and ~500/second in prokaryotes. Nucleotides have to be assembled and available in the nucleus, along with energy to make bonds between nucleotides. DNA helicase enzymes unzip the DNA helix by breaking the H-bonds between bases. Once the polymerases have opened the DNA, an area known as the replication bubble forks (always initiated at a certain set of nucleotides, the origin of replication). New nucleotides are placed in the fork and link to the corresponding parental nucleotide already there (A with T, C with G). Prokaryotes open a single replication fork, while eukaryotes have multiple forks.
Since the DNA strands are antiparallel, and replication proceeds in the 5' to 3' direction on EACH strand, one strand will form a continuous copy. The top strand here…. Text pg. 212
The Lagging Strand …while the other, lagging strand will form a series of short pieces with gaps. These are called “Okazaki fragments” and require the use of other enzymes to complete the process. Text pg. 212
Semi-conservative replication Original DNA Strand New DNA Strands
Proofreading DNA must be faithfully replicated…but mistakes occur: DNA polymerase (DNA pol) inserts the wrong nucleotide base in 1/10,000 bases –DNA pol has a proofreading capability and can correct errors Mismatch repair: ‘wrong’ inserted base can be removed Excision repair: DNA may be damaged by chemicals, radiation, etc. Mechanism to cut out and replace with correct bases –Text pg 213
How does DNA carry the information for life? Small segments of DNA (sequences of nucleotides) code for specific proteins These segments of DNA are called genes One gene codes for one protein …(mostly!) Hundreds-Thousands of genes per chromosome