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Lincoln Administration. Election of 1860 Election Results Candidate Party elect votes pop votes Candidate Party elect votes pop votes RED Abraham LincolnRepublican.

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Presentation on theme: "Lincoln Administration. Election of 1860 Election Results Candidate Party elect votes pop votes Candidate Party elect votes pop votes RED Abraham LincolnRepublican."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lincoln Administration

2 Election of 1860

3 Election Results Candidate Party elect votes pop votes Candidate Party elect votes pop votes RED Abraham LincolnRepublican 180 1,866,452 LT BlueJohn C. Breckinridge Democratic ,953 GoldJohn Bell Constitutional Union ,906 Blue Stephen A. Douglas Democratic 12 1,382,713 Purple split between Lincoln and Douglas

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5 Monday, March 4, 1861, was a big day for Abraham Lincoln and for America. That morning, he and outgoing President James Buchanan left the Willard Hotel, which is nearby the White House, in a horse-drawn carriage bound for the Capitol. Shortly after 1 p.m., Chief Justice of the Supreme Court Roger B. Taney administered the presidential oath of office. Monday, March 4, 1861, was a big day for Abraham Lincoln and for America. That morning, he and outgoing President James Buchanan left the Willard Hotel, which is nearby the White House, in a horse-drawn carriage bound for the Capitol. Shortly after 1 p.m., Chief Justice of the Supreme Court Roger B. Taney administered the presidential oath of office.

6 For guidance and inspiration while composing his inaugural address, Lincoln turned to historical documents. All of them were concerned with states' rights. For guidance and inspiration while composing his inaugural address, Lincoln turned to historical documents. All of them were concerned with states' rights. Lincoln's inaugural address was stirring. He appealed for the preservation of the Union. To retain his support in the North without further alienating the South, he called for compromise. He promised he would not initiate force to maintain the Union or interfere with slavery in the states in which it already existed. Lincoln's inaugural address was stirring. He appealed for the preservation of the Union. To retain his support in the North without further alienating the South, he called for compromise. He promised he would not initiate force to maintain the Union or interfere with slavery in the states in which it already existed.

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9 Oath of Office The origin of Lincoln's second Inaugural Bible is unknown, but it was open to Matthew 7:1; 18:7; and Revelations 16:7.

10 Events Life in the United States during Lincoln's administration revolved almost entirely around the Civil War. Life in the United States during Lincoln's administration revolved almost entirely around the Civil War. To raise money to fight the war, Congress levied the first income tax in the history of the country. To raise money to fight the war, Congress levied the first income tax in the history of the country. For the first time, federal officeholders had to take an oath of loyalty to the Union. For the first time, federal officeholders had to take an oath of loyalty to the Union. Pioneers flocked to the western frontier, and mining towns sprang up overnight. Pioneers flocked to the western frontier, and mining towns sprang up overnight. The government gave free farms to settlers, and set aside land for colleges that later became state universities The government gave free farms to settlers, and set aside land for colleges that later became state universities

11 President Lincoln's cabinet included all of his major rivals for the Republican nomination for President in 1860—William H. Seward, Salmon P. Chase, Simon Cameron and Edward Bates President Lincoln's cabinet included all of his major rivals for the Republican nomination for President in 1860—William H. Seward, Salmon P. Chase, Simon Cameron and Edward Bates Simon Cameron William H. Seward Salmon P. Chase Edward Bates

12 Lincoln's Vice-Presidents and Cabinet Vice-President Hannibal Hamlin Andrew Johnson (1865) Vice-President Hannibal Hamlin Andrew Johnson (1865) Secretary of State William H. Seward Secretary of State William H. Seward Secretary of the Treasury Salmon P. Chase William P. Fessenden (1864) Hugh McCulloch (1865) Secretary of the Treasury Salmon P. Chase William P. Fessenden (1864) Hugh McCulloch (1865) Secretary of War Simon Cameron Edwin M. Stanton (1862) Secretary of War Simon Cameron Edwin M. Stanton (1862) Attorney General Edward Bates James Speed (1864) Attorney General Edward Bates James Speed (1864) Postmaster General Montgomery Blair William Dennison (1864) Postmaster General Montgomery Blair William Dennison (1864) Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles Secretary of the Interior Caleb B. Smith John P. Usher (1863) Secretary of the Interior Caleb B. Smith John P. Usher (1863)

13 No President ever had a Cabinet of which the members were so independent, had so large individual followings, and were so inharmonious Part of the problem was a conflict of ambitions. William H. Seward had wanted to be President, and if he couldn't be president, he wanted to act as if he was. Salmon P. Chase made it clear that he both wanted to be President and knew he would be a better one that Mr. Lincoln. Montgomery Blair wanted his brother Frank to be President and himself to be a Supreme Court Chief Justice. Attorney General Bates also wanted to head the Court and told the President so. After Chase departed the Cabinet, Chase and his friends shifted his attention to that post. Caleb Smith wanted to just be a member of the Court and maneuvered to block the appointment of Mr. Lincoln's Illinois friends, David Davis and Orville H. Browning. Even Edwin Stanton aspired to lead the Supreme Court; his wife enlisted Browning's aid in pressing his case in the fall of Gideon Welles alone seemed to have no conflicting aspirations—because he was better at critiquing the ambitions of others Part of the problem was a conflict of ambitions. William H. Seward had wanted to be President, and if he couldn't be president, he wanted to act as if he was. Salmon P. Chase made it clear that he both wanted to be President and knew he would be a better one that Mr. Lincoln. Montgomery Blair wanted his brother Frank to be President and himself to be a Supreme Court Chief Justice. Attorney General Bates also wanted to head the Court and told the President so. After Chase departed the Cabinet, Chase and his friends shifted his attention to that post. Caleb Smith wanted to just be a member of the Court and maneuvered to block the appointment of Mr. Lincoln's Illinois friends, David Davis and Orville H. Browning. Even Edwin Stanton aspired to lead the Supreme Court; his wife enlisted Browning's aid in pressing his case in the fall of Gideon Welles alone seemed to have no conflicting aspirations—because he was better at critiquing the ambitions of others

14 One reason Lincoln appointed so many rivals to cabinet posts is that he intended to rely on his own judgment rather than that of his advisers One reason Lincoln appointed so many rivals to cabinet posts is that he intended to rely on his own judgment rather than that of his advisers

15 Vice President Hannibal Hamlin played an important role in the cabinet selection process—but little role in the subsequent administration. Vice President Hannibal Hamlin played an important role in the cabinet selection process—but little role in the subsequent administration.

16 Among the Cabinet members, there was also considerable friction, based on jealousy of relations with the President and animosity over policy. Nor did they generally get along very well. Among the Cabinet members, there was also considerable friction, based on jealousy of relations with the President and animosity over policy. Nor did they generally get along very well. The president took no part those rivalries and pretensions The president took no part those rivalries and pretensions

17 Much of the Cabinet jealousy was directed toward Secretary of State William H. Seward William H. Seward was the Senator from New York (Whig, Republican, ) who was the leading candidate for Republican presidential nomination in His association with New York Republican boss Thurlow Weed tainted him in the eyes of many. Seward took office with a condescending and skeptical attitude toward Mr. Lincoln. He and the President became close personal friends—to the consternation of his enemies

18 Assistant Secretary of War Charles A. Dana wrote “The relations between Mr. Lincoln and the members of his Cabinet were always friendly and sincere on his part. He treated every one of them with unvarying candor, respect, and kindness; but though several of them were men of extraordinary force and self-assertion—this was true especially of Mr. Seward, Mr. Chase, and Mr. Stanton—and though there was nothing of selfhood or domination in his manner toward them, it was always plain that he was the master and they the subordinates. They constantly had to yield to his will in questions where responsibility fell upon him. If he ever yielded to theirs, it was because they convinced him that the course they advised was judicious and appropriate.” “The relations between Mr. Lincoln and the members of his Cabinet were always friendly and sincere on his part. He treated every one of them with unvarying candor, respect, and kindness; but though several of them were men of extraordinary force and self-assertion—this was true especially of Mr. Seward, Mr. Chase, and Mr. Stanton—and though there was nothing of selfhood or domination in his manner toward them, it was always plain that he was the master and they the subordinates. They constantly had to yield to his will in questions where responsibility fell upon him. If he ever yielded to theirs, it was because they convinced him that the course they advised was judicious and appropriate.”

19 “Not that they were always satisfied with his actions; the members of the Cabinet, like human beings in general, were not pleased with everything. In their judgment much was imperfect in the administration; much, they felt, would have been done better if their views had been adopted and they individually had had charge of it. Not so with the President. He was calm, equable, uncomplaining. In the discussion of important questions, whatever he said showed the profoundest thought, even when he was joking. He seemed to see every side of every question. He never was impatient, he never was in a hurry, and he never tried to hurry anybody else. To every one he was pleasant and cordial. Yet they all felt it was his word that went at last; that every case was open until he gave his decision.” “Not that they were always satisfied with his actions; the members of the Cabinet, like human beings in general, were not pleased with everything. In their judgment much was imperfect in the administration; much, they felt, would have been done better if their views had been adopted and they individually had had charge of it. Not so with the President. He was calm, equable, uncomplaining. In the discussion of important questions, whatever he said showed the profoundest thought, even when he was joking. He seemed to see every side of every question. He never was impatient, he never was in a hurry, and he never tried to hurry anybody else. To every one he was pleasant and cordial. Yet they all felt it was his word that went at last; that every case was open until he gave his decision.”

20 Criticism of Postmaster General Montgomery Blair by Radical Republicans led to his forced resignation in the middle of the presidential campaign. With the reelection of President Lincoln in 1864, there were several resignations. Ward Hill Lamon remembered: “When Attorney-General Bates resigned, late in 1864, after the resignation of Postmaster-General Blair in that year, the Cabinet was left without a Southern member. A few days before the meeting of the Supreme Court, which then met in December, Mr. Lincoln sent for Titian F. Coffey, and said: ‘My Cabinet has shrunk up North, and I must find a Southern man. I suppose if the twelve Apostles were to be chosen nowadays, the shrieks of locality would have to be heeded.” By early in 1865, there were also new appointees to the Departments of the Interior and Treasury. Of the original cabinet only Secretary of State Seward and Navy Secretary Welles remained Criticism of Postmaster General Montgomery Blair by Radical Republicans led to his forced resignation in the middle of the presidential campaign. With the reelection of President Lincoln in 1864, there were several resignations. Ward Hill Lamon remembered: “When Attorney-General Bates resigned, late in 1864, after the resignation of Postmaster-General Blair in that year, the Cabinet was left without a Southern member. A few days before the meeting of the Supreme Court, which then met in December, Mr. Lincoln sent for Titian F. Coffey, and said: ‘My Cabinet has shrunk up North, and I must find a Southern man. I suppose if the twelve Apostles were to be chosen nowadays, the shrieks of locality would have to be heeded.” By early in 1865, there were also new appointees to the Departments of the Interior and Treasury. Of the original cabinet only Secretary of State Seward and Navy Secretary Welles remained Montgomery Blair Gideon Welles

21 Andrew Johnson Vice president

22 Republicans across the country had the jitters in August, fearing that Lincoln would be defeated. Acknowledging those fears, Lincoln wrote and signed a pledge that, if he should lose the election, he would none the less defeat the Confederacy by an all-out military effort before turning over the White House: Republicans across the country had the jitters in August, fearing that Lincoln would be defeated. Acknowledging those fears, Lincoln wrote and signed a pledge that, if he should lose the election, he would none the less defeat the Confederacy by an all-out military effort before turning over the White House: This morning, as for some days past, it seems exceedingly probable that this Administration will not be re-elected. Then it will be my duty to so co-operate with the President elect, as to save the Union between the election and the inauguration; as he will have secured his election on such ground that he cannot possibly save it afterwards. This morning, as for some days past, it seems exceedingly probable that this Administration will not be re-elected. Then it will be my duty to so co-operate with the President elect, as to save the Union between the election and the inauguration; as he will have secured his election on such ground that he cannot possibly save it afterwards. Lincoln did not show the pledge to his cabinet, but asked them to sign the sealed envelope Lincoln did not show the pledge to his cabinet, but asked them to sign the sealed envelope

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24 Against the grain During the Civil War, Lincoln appropriated powers no previous President had wielded: he used his war powers to proclaim a blockade, suspended the writ of habeus corpus, spent money without congressional authorization, and imprisoned 18,000 suspected Confederate sympathizers without trial. Nearly all of his actions, although vehemently denounced by the Copperheads, were subsequently upheld by Congress and the Courts During the Civil War, Lincoln appropriated powers no previous President had wielded: he used his war powers to proclaim a blockade, suspended the writ of habeus corpus, spent money without congressional authorization, and imprisoned 18,000 suspected Confederate sympathizers without trial. Nearly all of his actions, although vehemently denounced by the Copperheads, were subsequently upheld by Congress and the Courts

25 1865 Place of Nominating Convention Baltimore Place of Nominating Convention Baltimore Ballot on Which Nominated 1 st Ballot on Which Nominated 1 st Democratic Opponent George B. McClellan Democratic Opponent George B. McClellanGeorge B. McClellanGeorge B. McClellan Electoral Vote 212 (Lincoln) to 21 (McClellan) Popular Vote 2,206,938 (Lincoln) to 1,803,787 (McClellan) Electoral Vote 212 (Lincoln) to 21 (McClellan) Popular Vote 2,206,938 (Lincoln) to 1,803,787 (McClellan) Age at Inauguration 56 Age at Inauguration 56

26 On March 4, 1865, he delivered his second inaugural address, which was his favorite of all his speeches. At this time, a victory over the rebels was at hand, slavery was dead, and Lincoln was looking to the future On March 4, 1865, he delivered his second inaugural address, which was his favorite of all his speeches. At this time, a victory over the rebels was at hand, slavery was dead, and Lincoln was looking to the futuresecond inaugural addresssecond inaugural address

27 2 nd inauguration Admission for admittance was a $10 ticket along with the formal invitation, which admitted “one gentleman and two ladies” to his second inaugural ball

28 Speech With malice toward none, with charity for all, with firmness in the right as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in, to bind up the nation’s wounds, to care for him who shall have borne the battle and for his widow and his orphan, to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace among ourselves and with all nations. With malice toward none, with charity for all, with firmness in the right as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in, to bind up the nation’s wounds, to care for him who shall have borne the battle and for his widow and his orphan, to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace among ourselves and with all nations.

29 On April 9, 1865, General Lee surrendered at Appomattox Court House in Virginia; the war was effectively over. The other rebel armies surrendered and there was no guerrilla warfare. Lincoln went to Richmond to make a public gesture of sitting at Jefferson Davis's own desk, symbolically saying to the nation that the President of the United States held authority over the entire land. He was greeted at the city as a conquering hero by freed slaves, whose sentiments were epitomized by one admirer's quote, "I know I am free for I have seen the face of Father Abraham and have felt him". When a general asked Lincoln how the defeated Confederates should be treated, Lincoln replied, "Let 'em up easy On April 9, 1865, General Lee surrendered at Appomattox Court House in Virginia; the war was effectively over. The other rebel armies surrendered and there was no guerrilla warfare. Lincoln went to Richmond to make a public gesture of sitting at Jefferson Davis's own desk, symbolically saying to the nation that the President of the United States held authority over the entire land. He was greeted at the city as a conquering hero by freed slaves, whose sentiments were epitomized by one admirer's quote, "I know I am free for I have seen the face of Father Abraham and have felt him". When a general asked Lincoln how the defeated Confederates should be treated, Lincoln replied, "Let 'em up easy Appomattox Court HouseJefferson Davis Appomattox Court HouseJefferson Davis


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