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Do old dogs teach tricks to puppies or chase them away? Evidence from Hungarian plant- level data on the complementarity between young and old workers.

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Presentation on theme: "Do old dogs teach tricks to puppies or chase them away? Evidence from Hungarian plant- level data on the complementarity between young and old workers."— Presentation transcript:

1 Do old dogs teach tricks to puppies or chase them away? Evidence from Hungarian plant- level data on the complementarity between young and old workers work in progress Zsombor Cseres-Gergely Institute of Economics, CERSHAS, Budapest, Hungary WPEG Annual Conference 2013, July 25-26, University of Sheffield Financial support provided by the OTKA grant No

2 Motivation Ageing – fiscal pressure through many channels. Important one: pension and inactivity instead of gainful work. EU: active ageing policies in place. Employment of the 55+ is rising. Predicted and likely connection. At the same time: youth unemployment rising from 17 (2006) to 22.5 (2012) per cent in the EU, trend does not seem to decline. Serious effects of lack of integration. Little knowledge about the connection between older and youth employment. Empirical evidence mixed. Practically no results based on up to date methods and data. Cseres-Gergely: Evidence on old-young complementarity. WPEG annual conference University of Sheffield 1/14

3 Main labour market indicators for the EU Employment rateUnemployment rate Cseres-Gergely: Evidence on old-young complementarity. WPEG annual conference University of Sheffield 2/14

4 Evidence in the literature Theory: Layard, Nickell, and Jackman (1991). No effect should be present due to wage-adjustment (intro. of early retirement) Simple x-country panel regressions on aggregate data: Herbertsson (2001). No negative effect of early retirement on youth employment. Jousten et al. (2008): refined time-series evidence using retirement incentives with early retirement. No effect on youth. Gruber-Wise (2010): Follow-up research to early-retirement. No effect But: Skans (2005): Negative effect on the young with regional data in Sveden Grant-Hamermesh (1980): older women crowd out younger men in the US Cseres-Gergely (2013): weak crowding out effect for the public sector in Hungary, no wage effects Cseres-Gergely: Evidence on old-young complementarity. WPEG annual conference University of Sheffield 3/14

5 Motivation and indicators for Hungary Employment rate Unemployment rate Cseres-Gergely: Evidence on old-young complementarity. WPEG annual conference University of Sheffield Increase of pensionable age to 62 from 55, 59 (female, male). Effect on activity (Kátay-Nobilis, 2009). Significant crowding out from aggregate regressions (Cseres-Gergely, 2013) 4/14

6 Naïve aggregate regressions Cseres-Gergely: Evidence on old-young complementarity. WPEG annual conference University of Sheffield 5/14

7 Results for the public sector Motivate estimates through a dynamic labour budgeting model, no “real” parameters of interest. Estimate differenced equations with number of youth employment on the LHS, lagged number of employment and wages for other age groups on the RHS. A-B dynamic panel. Fairly robust negative effects, around -0.4, -0.1, -0.1 in the 1., 2. and 3. year, resp. Weaker for experience groups. Estimate similar equations with entry on the LHS: effects are weaker, not sig. – conclusion: exit. Extended Mincerian wage equation including share of older workers and share-experience interaction. Effect of older sig. negative, but for all other groups. Cseres-Gergely: Evidence on old-young complementarity. WPEG annual conference University of Sheffield 6/14

8 General second order approximation to a production function with curvature (Christensen, Jorgenson, and Lau 1973): The private sector: some theory Need a relationship between factors respecting optimal factor choice: Cseres-Gergely: Evidence on old-young complementarity. WPEG annual conference University of Sheffield where The elasticity of complementarity – the effect the change in one factor on the martinal product of the other. Second derivative! If CD, no effect on MP, optimal factor use depends on relative prices only, not on the use of other factors. 7/14

9 Estimating equation and considerations Production function form + many factory = collinearity+endogeneity. On competitive input markets: Estimation in share-form: need price/expenditure data and assumptions of efficient operation and input market structure. Then where Z is a vector of other factors shifting the marginal product and ε is an unobservable stochastic component, orthogonal to observables. Use 3SLS with symmetry constraints. Omit the K equation, use homogeneity. Here the elasticity of complementarity is Cseres-Gergely: Evidence on old-young complementarity. WPEG annual conference University of Sheffield 8/14

10 Data Matched Wage-National Tax Authority (MWN) data of the Data Bank of the Institute of Economics (IE), CERSHAS. Panel for firms. A random sample of all firms with double-entry bookkeeping having at least 10 employees and an additional subsample of micro-enterprises. Employees are randomly sampled based on their date of birth. No public sector, only larger firms, only legal employment. Individual level data on plant characteristics as well as on workers’ wages and characteristics, along with basic accounting data, such as revenue, turnover or amortisation. Observations from 2000 to Only those with nonzero share of all labour types are used in the estimation. 81,429 observations, 8-11 thousand per year. Need to weight due to linking. Require that L>30, positive costs, capital cost < K. Half lost. Require nonzero L-s. Final sample: around observation per year, a total of Employment: estimate share from employee sample, get absolute figures from total number of employees. Cost shares: total numbers, average wages and firm-level wage-tax as well as amortisation, interest payment, stock of capital. Cseres-Gergely: Evidence on old-young complementarity. WPEG annual conference University of Sheffield 9/14

11 Stylised facts from microdata Share of firms with nonzero values for young and old employees, respectively in 2000: 39% and 32%. In 2008: 38% and 63%. An average of 25% has both nonzero. Sample these. Average share of old up from 6 to 12% (7 to 11). Young: down from 11 to 6% (11 to 8). More than population proportion changes. Almost no correlation between old and young employment share in the cross-section (-0.03). Low correlation between change of the number of old any young is -0.1, stable over time. The young earn some 83% of the prime age, but no correlation with proportion/share of older workers in the cross-section. Cseres-Gergely: Evidence on old-young complementarity. WPEG annual conference University of Sheffield 10/14

12 Decomposing changes in youth employment share The average share of young workers can be multiplicatively decomposed as where N is the total number of employers M i is the number of employers with nonzero share of L y. l yi =L yi /L i is the share of L y within an employer, while is the share of L y within the population, among those with nonzero share. Cseres-Gergely: Evidence on old-young complementarity. WPEG annual conference University of Sheffield ly shareof Ly>0 ly for nonzero /14

13 Response of wages to older workers’ share Alternative margin for adjustment: wages. Check response. Base: Mincerian wage regression. Extend to allow for flexible age-earnings profiles, effect of share of age-groups and their interaction: w: wage, X: demographics, a: age, s: share of group in total employment. Parameter of interest: δ 1 and δ 2 – shifts experience profile. Actual implementation: include the effect of both share of the young and old. Use nonparametric profile (indicators). Result: larger share of old push down wages, but for everyone. Cseres-Gergely: Evidence on old-young complementarity. WPEG annual conference University of Sheffield 12/14

14 Estimation results: all time periods Parameter estimates: Elasticities of complementarity: Effects on quantities (assuming no wage effects): Cseres-Gergely: Evidence on old-young complementarity. WPEG annual conference University of Sheffield LyLpLoK Ly-4,254-1,695-0,7951,047 Lp-1,695-1,882-1,0531,001 Lo-0,795-1,053-5,7131,023 K1,0471,0011,023-0,584 LyLpLoK Ly0,030-0,027-0,0040,001 Lp-0,0270,059-0,0320,000 Lo-0,004-0,0320,0350,001 K 0,0000,001-0,002 LyLpLoK Ly-1,000-6,575-0,21830,631 Lp-0,055-1,000-0,0404,011 Lo-0,119-2,602-1,00019,049 K0,0140,2270,016-1,000 13/14

15 Conclusions so far Change in youth employment share explained mostly by intensive changes. Q-substitutability between all age groups, including the young and the old Results stable over time periods No wage effect on the youth, but a generational effect only. Need to: look at heterogeneity and firms in/out zero youth/old share Cseres-Gergely: Evidence on old-young complementarity. WPEG annual conference University of Sheffield 14/14

16 Thank you for your attention! Cseres-Gergely: Evidence on old-young complementarity. WPEG annual conference University of Sheffield 15

17 Cseres-Gergely: Evidence on old-young complementarity. WPEG annual conference University of Sheffield 16 Estimation results: selected time periods betayybetayosigmayysigmayodLydLodwydLo


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