Presentation on theme: "Promoting Social Emotional Competence Individualized Intensive Interventions: Determining the Meaning of Challenging Behavior Module 3a."— Presentation transcript:
1 Promoting Social Emotional Competence Individualized Intensive Interventions: Determining the Meaning of Challenging BehaviorModule 3a
2 Agenda Introduction Challenging Behavior Overview of PBS Behavior Equation The Process of PBS, Building a Team Introduction to Functional Assessment Functional Assessment ObservationConducting Observations, Data to CollectFunctional Assessment InterviewCase Study Activity: Determining the FunctionHypothesis Development Not Sure about The Hypothesis
3 Learner Objectives This workshop will teach you to: Understand the difference between PBS and traditional discipline approaches.Define forms and function of communication and identify the behavioral mechanisms that contribute to viewing challenging behavior as communicative.Identify methods that may be used to determine the function of challenging behavior.Use interview and observation data to determine the communicative function of challenging behavior and develop behavioral hypotheses.
4 Challenging BehaviorWhat we are referring to when we say “challenging behavior” is:Any repeated pattern of behavior that interferes with learning or engagement in pro-social interactions with peers and adults.Behaviors that are not responsive to the use of developmentally appropriate guidance procedures.Prolonged tantrums, physical and verbal aggression, disruptive vocal and motor behavior (e.g., screaming, stereotypy), property destructions, self-injury, noncompliance, and withdrawal
6 Promoting Social Emotional Competence Few children(PBS)Individualized Intensive InterventionsChildren at-riskSocial Emotional Teaching StrategiesCreating Supportive EnvironmentsAll childrenBuilding Positive Relationships
7 Intensive Individualized Instruction Intensive individualized instruction and interventions are used with children who have very persistent and severe challenging behavior and do not respond to the typical preventive practices, child guidance procedures, or social emotional teaching strategies that would normally work with most children.
9 Positive Behavior Support (PBS) An approach for changing a child’s behaviorIs based on humanistic values and research.An approach for developing an understanding of why the child has challenging behavior and teaching the child new skills to replace challenging behavior.A holistic approach that considers all of the factors that impact on a child, and the child’s behavior
10 Research on PBSEffective for all ages of individuals with disabilities 2-50 years.Effective for diverse groups of individuals with challenges: mental retardation, oppositional defiant disorder, autism, emotional behavioral disorders, children at risk, etc.PBS is the only comprehensive and evidence- based approach to address challenging behavior within a variety of natural settings.
11 Old Way New Way Intervention matched to purpose of the behavior General intervention for all behavior problemsIntervention is reactiveFocus on behavior reductionQuick FixIntervention matched to purpose of the behaviorIntervention is proactiveFocus on teaching new skillsLong term interventions
12 Challenging Behavior Communicates Communicates a message when a child does not have language.Used instead of language by a child who has limited social skills or has learned that challenging behavior will result in meeting his or her needs.
13 Challenging Behavior Works Children engage in challenging behavior because “it works” for them.Challenging behavior results in the child gaining access to something or someone (i.e., obtain/request) or avoiding something or someone (i.e., escape/protest).
22 Dimensions of Communication Every communicative behavior can be described by the form and function.Form: the behavior used to communicateFunction: the reason or purpose of the communicative behavior
23 Children Communicate a Many Ways: Forms of communication-Words-Sentences-Eye gaze-Pulling adult-Crying-Biting-Tantrums-?
24 Children Communicate a Variety of Messages Functions of communication-Request object, activity, person-Escape demands-Escape activity-Escape a person-Request help-Request social interaction-Comment-Request information-Request sensory stimulation-Escape sensory stimulation-?
25 Trigger Behavior Maintaining Consequence Joey is asked to come to circle. Teacher provides physical prompt to move him to group.Joey resists, cries, and hits teacherTeacher moves away from Joey and allows Joey to select a different activity.
26 Setting EventEvent that occurs at another time that increases the likelihood the child will have challenging behavior. Setting events serve to “set the child up” to have challenging behavior.
27 Behavior Equation Setting Event Trigger Behavior Maintaining ConsequenceQuan approaches computer and sees child working on program.Quan moves his picture to indicate that he is next. Quan observes and waits for his turn.Child leaves computer and Quan sits down and begins working.
28 Behavior Equation Setting Event Trigger Behavior Maintaining ConsequenceQuan was up most the night with an asthma attack. He arrives at school looking sleepy and with dark circles under his eyes.Quan approaches computer and sees child working on program.Quan hits child and pushes his body on the child’s chair.Child leaves computer and Quan sits down and begins working.
29 EvanEvan is playing with Duplos. He tries to attach a block to his stack of 3. He can’t quite get the blocks to connect. He looks up at the adult and begins fussing. He holds the stack of blocks up, looks at the blocks, and looks at the adult. The adult helps him put the blocks together.
30 Evan Setting Event Trigger Behavior Maintaining Consequence Playing with Duplos, can’t connect blocksLooks up at adult, fusses, holds up blocks, looks at block/adultAdult helps put blocks together.Function:Get help
31 ShanaShana is sitting in her high chair with nothing on the tray. Her mother is stirring her oatmeal. Shana begins crying and bangs her head on the back of the seat. Her mother says to her, "It's not cool enough, honey, just a minute." Shana stops crying when the oatmeal is placed on her tray.
32 Shana Setting Event Trigger Behavior Maintaining Consequence ? Hungry Sitting in high chair with nothing on tray mom stirring oatmeal.Cries, gangs head.Mom says, “it’s not cool enough, just a minute,” then gives oatmeal.Function:Get oatmeal
33 GabriellaGabriella is playing in her room. Her mom says, “Come on Gabriella. Time to go to school.” Her mom pulls on her arm to try to get Gabriella to stand and go to the car. Gabriella yells, screams, and begins kicking at her toys. Her mother says, “All right, 5 more minutes. But then we must go.” Gabriella’s mom walks away, and Gabriella continues playing with her toys.
34 Gabriella Setting Event Trigger Behavior Maintaining Consequence Playing in room, time to get in car for school.Mom pulls on arm to get to stand.Yells, screams, kicks at toys.Mom gives her 5 more minutes of play time.Function:Escapes-prolongs transition
35 TimTim is riding a trike on the playground bike path. He sees a child move to the sandbox where he had just finished building a road-way. He leaps off his trike and tackles the child. He hits the child. An adult comes over to intervene. She comforts the child, and scolds Tim. Tim goes to the sandbox and continues construction on his road-way.
36 Tim Setting Event Trigger Behavior Maintaining Consequence A child moves to the sandbox where Tim has just built something.Tackles and hits child.Adult intervenes and scolds Tim, comforts other child.Tim continues road-way.Function:Get toy back
37 MadisonMadison is in housekeeping, putting on high heels and a hat. Emily moves into the area and selects a purse from the dress-ups. Madison shouts “no” and bites Emily. A teacher comes over, she asks Madison to go to the thinking chair and takes Emily to the bathroom to look at the bite. After 4 minutes, Madison leaves the thinking chair and returns to housekeeping. She grabs the purse Emily had selected and continues to play. Emily leaves the bathroom with the teacher and then begins an art activity where the teacher is present.
38 Avoid sharing the purse MadisonSetting EventTriggerBehaviorMaintaining ConsequenceAnother child moves to area and gets a toy (purse).Shouts “no,” bites child.Sent to “thinking chair,” other child consoled minutes later, Madison leaves chair and returns to play with purse.Function:Avoid sharing the purse
39 Process of Positive Behavior Support Step 1: Establishing a collaborative team and identifying goalsStep 2: Gathering information (functional assessment)Step 3: Developing hypotheses (best guess)Step 4: Designing behavior support plansStep 5: Implementing, monitoring, evaluating outcomes, and refining plan in natural environments
40 Potential Team Members Parents/FamilyTeacherAssisting Teacher/ParaprofessionalTherapistsAdministrative StaffOther(s)
41 Group Discussion: Welcoming Families Chart on chart paper
42 Process of Positive Behavior Support Step 1: Establishing a collaborative team and identifying goalsStep 2: Gathering information (functional assessment)Step 3: Developing hypotheses (best guess)Step 4: Designing behavior support plansStep 5: Implementing, monitoring, evaluating outcomes, and refining plan in natural environments
43 Functional Assessment A process for developing an understanding of a person’s challenging behavior and, in particular, how the behavior is governed by environmental events.Results in the identification of the “purpose” or “function” of the challenging behavior.
44 Functional Assessment Observe the child in target routines and settings.Collect data on child behavior, looking for situations that predict challenging behavior and that are linked with appropriate behavior.Interview persons most familiar with the childReview records.
47 Observation Card Name: Observer: Date: General Context: Time: Social Context:Challenging Behavior:Social Reaction:Possible Function:
48 Observation Card Example Name: KarenObserver: teacherDate: 1/22General Context: Choice time/artTime: 10:00Social Context: Playing alone in house. Teacher comes over to Karen and asks her to come to the art table for art. When she doesn’t respond, the teacher tries to assist her by taking her arm to nudge her to stand.Challenging Behavior: Karen pulls away and begins to protests, saying “No! I not go to art!” as she pulls away from the teacherSocial Reaction: The teacher walks away and says, “I will be back in a few minutes to see if you are ready.”Possible Function: Escape Art
50 Observation Card Example Name: Segment 1Observer:Date:General Context: Choice timeTime:Social Context: Playing alone in block play. Goes over to a group ofchildren playing.Challenging Behavior: Sticks out tongue and makes raspberry sound, hits boy,scratches his shoulder.Social Reaction: Boy yells at him, friend brings him a lizard, boy yells toteacher.Possible Function: Initiate social interaction/Join play
52 Observation Card Example Name: Segment 2Observer:Date:General Context: PlaygroundTime:Social Context: Playground play with 2 friends. Girl goes to basket and getstruck just like the other friend’s truckChallenging Behavior: He tries to take her truck, shoves, pushes, and continuestugging for toy.Social Reaction: Gets toy for a second, continues to fight girl for toy , teacherreprimands and carries him away.Possible Function: Obtain the toy (same truck as “best friend’s”)
54 Observation Card Example Name: Segment 3Observer:Date:General Context: ComputerTime:Social Context: Brother is having a turn at the computer. Brother sits. MomSays, “1. Josh 2. Brendan.” Brendan says, “It’s Brendan’s turn.”Challenging Behavior: B. yells, falls to ground, pulls chair, kicks, cries.Social Reaction: Josh protests, mother says, “Do you want me to carry you?”B. says,“Carry me.” She carries him away.Possible Function: Obtain computer/Adult attention
56 Observation Card Example Name: Segment 4Observer:Date:General Context: Enter libraryTime:Social Context: Going into library. Mother says, “Let’s go inside.” Then shecounts down.Challenging Behavior: Drops to floor, resists moving, screams, kicks, tries to run,drops, resists, screams, becomes “wet noodle.”Social Reaction: Mother pulls him through doors then picks him up as he resists.Possible Function: Escape/avoid going into the library (prolonged)(and adult attention)
58 Observation Card Example Name: Segment 5Observer:Date:General Context: Circle with puppetTime:Social Context: Teacher kisses children’s cheeks with puppet. Says, “Saygood-bye to MiMi” Teacher gets up to put away puppet.Challenging Behavior: Hitting self on head with fist, pull at shirtSocial Reaction: Adult says “Ryan, ready to dance? Want to dance Ryan?”Goes and sits in her lap and is happy.Possible Function: Adult attention
60 Observation Card Example Name: Segment 6Observer:Date:General Context: Floor playTime:Social Context: Teacher brings him to the floor, sits him down, and then leavesChallenging Behavior: Pulls shirt off one arm, hits head with fist, thrusts back, head bangs.Social Reaction: Teacher returns, helps him with getting shirt back on and thenhugs him.Possible Function: Adult attention
61 Sample Setting Event Chart MONTUESWEDTHURSFRISATSUNWhat happened the nightbefore?Slept PoorlyYesNoMom on Midnight ShiftHow was his behavior?Tantrum in A.M.Tantrum in P.M.
62 Sample Setting Event Chart MonTuesWedThursFriHow does he come to school?Rides the busMom bringsTantrum at a.m. circleHis behavior?Tantrum at snackTantrum at small group
63 Scatter Plot Rachel Hitting Peers Maya 10/1 through 10/12 Student: Observer:Dates:Target Behavior:Using a scatter plot involves recording the times of day (and/or activities) in which the behavior does and does not occur to identify patterns over days or weeksMaya10/1 through 10/12Behavior did not occurBehavior did occurDid not observeDatesTimeActivity10/110/210/310/410/510/810/910/1010/1110/127:30ArrivalFree Choice9:00Planning9:30Centers10:30Snack11:00Outside11:30Small Group12:00Lunch12:30Nap1:302:30P.M. Circle3:00DepartureNA
64 Behavior Expectations Activity Analysis Child: Rachel Routine/Activity: House CenterActivity DescriptionBehavior ExpectationsProblemsSteps:1. Select materials2. Pretend in roles3. Exchange materials with peers4. Follow peers’ lead or accept role assignment5. Clean-up1. Pick materials that no one is using2. Use materials appropriately3. Don’t take from peer4. Maintain engagement5. Put materials on shelf in correct area3. Takes materials from others4. Ignores peers, interferes in play
65 Behavior Expectations Activity Analysis Child: Rachel Routine/Activity: SnackActivity DescriptionBehavior ExpectationsProblemsSteps:1. Sit in chair2. Take food from plate when passed3. Eat food on plate4. Drink juice from own cup5. Ask for more food6. Wipe face with napkin7. Throw plate/cup/napkin away when finished1. Stay in seat2. Take one item, wait for turn3. Eat from own plate4. Drink and put cup on table5. Ask using please6. Use napkin, not clothing7. Clear place, throw in trash2. Takes multiple items, puts hand in bowl, grabs while plate is passed3. Takes food from other children’s plates5. Grabs food when she wants more
66 Everybody Helps Educational staff collects data Family collects dataEducational staff collects dataTherapists collect dataCollect data in ALL settings
67 “KIS”“KIS it” (Keep It Simple)-- Create simple, user-friendly forms to collect information (e.g., rating scales, check sheets)
70 Functional Assessment Interview Define behavior (describe what you see)Describe frequency and intensityExplore possible setting eventsIdentify predictorsIdentify maintaining consequencesIdentify current communicative functionsDescribe efficiency of the behaviorDescribe previous effortsIdentify possible reinforcers
71 Functional Assessment Interview Refer to sample of Tim’s Functional Assessment InterviewTimFAI.pdf
72 Large Group Activity: Complete Last Section of Tim’s FAI Distant Setting EventImmediate Antecedent (Trigger)Problem BehaviorMaintaining ConsequencesFunctionLINK TO ANSWER.pdf
73 Process of Positive Behavior Support Step 1: Establishing a collaborative team and identifying goals Step 2: Gathering information (functional assessment) Step 3: Developing hypotheses (best guess) Step 4: Designing behavior support plans Step 5: Implementing, monitoring, evaluating outcomes, and refining plan in natural environmentsMadelyn
74 Hypotheses Statements Triggers of the challenging behaviorDescription of the challenging behaviorResponses that maintain the challenging behaviorPurpose of the behavior
75 Tim’s Support Planning Chart- Hypothesis TriggerBehaviorMaintaining ConsequenceGroup play: centers and outside playSetting Events (if applicable):Verbal aggression (threats), physical aggression (hit, push, kick, punch), property destructionPeers give up toys/itemsPeers leave areaAdults intervene with negative attention on TimPreventionsNew SkillsNew ResponsesFunction: obtain toy/play
76 Hypothesis StatementIn group play situations (outside play/centers), Tim uses verbal aggression (threats), physical aggression (hit, push, kick, punch), and property destruction (throwing or banging toys) to obtain toys and/or join play. When this occurs, the peer relinquishes the desired toy and leaves the play area and/or an adult intervenes and provides Tim with excessive negative attention.
77 Hypothesis StatementBilly will use tantrums to request a social interaction. Billy will initiate a chase game or request to be held by pulling the adult’s hand or positioning the adult. If the adult does not comply, Billy will cry loudly, scream, and bring his hands to his face or ears. Often the adult will comply with his request or pick him up.
78 Hypothesis StatementMarcia tantrums to escape moving to a new activity. When she is asked to transition from an activity (e.g., playing in the sandbox) to another activity, she will whine, cry, pretend to vomit, slap at the adult, and scream. When she does this, the adult lets her stay a little longer with the original activity or picks her up kicking and screaming.
79 Not Sure About the Hypothesis? What would make the challenging behavior stop? Is it something you would provide or allow the child to access? Or is there something to remove? Or can you allow the child to leave?If still unsure, collect more data in the same context.Some challenging behavior may have the same form but serve multiple functions.Some challenging behaviors may begin around one function (e.g., escape) and continue to serve another function (e.g., gain attention).
80 Working as a Collaborative Team Assign rolesDetermine agenda and time for meetingsEnsure group participation through facilitation and participatory processes
81 RolesFacilitator – person who guides group in stating agenda, work goals, time allocationRecorder – person who writes down the discussionTime Keeper – Person who tracks time and warns when agenda item is endingReporter – person who shares group information, makes presentationEncourager – person who provides feedback to group membersJargon-buster – person who asks the question “what do you mean when you say ‘gobbley-gook’” and helps the group with communicating clearly
82 Hypothesis Development Assign roles.Review child description, observation, and interview.Complete final page of interview.Determine functions of challenging behavior.Write hypothesis statement for at least one function.Report to group.
83 Determining the Function of Challenging Behavior Assign rolesReview child descriptionReview observationsReview interviewComplete final page of interviewDetermine functions of problem behaviorReport to group
84 Major Messages Challenging behavior has meaning for the child Children use behavior to access something or someone (obtain/request) or avoid something or someone (escape/protest)The process of Function Assessment is used to determine the function or purpose of challenging behaviorHypothesis statements describe the triggers, challenging behavior, maintaining consequences, and function