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1 Unit 4 Gender Issues By Zhang Qi Oct., 12, 2008.

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1 1 Unit 4 Gender Issues By Zhang Qi Oct., 12, 2008

2 2 Unit 4 Gender Issues Learning Objectives 1. learn to consider gender issues in social and cultural perspectives 2. enlarge vocabulary on sex/gender 3. practice skills of doing project work in this area

3 3 Part II Differences between men and women What is “man”? What is “woman”?

4 4 Sex=Gender ? Sex refers to biological differences: chromosomes, hormone, profiles, internal and external organs. Gender describes the characteristics that a society and culture delineates as masculine or feminine.

5 5 Sex differences therefore refer only to those differences that can be attributed solely to biological difference. (especially to the differences in organs) Gender features are socially or culturally defined. Gender differences delineate those differences that exist between men and women.

6 6 sex = biological differences between males and females Therefore: Sex=male / female Gender = socially defined differences between men and women Therefore: gender=masculine / feminine Man=male sex + masculine role Woman= female sex + feminine role

7 7 Part III News Item 1— Differences between Men and Women Pre-listening questions Gender stereotypes (A conventional, formulaic, and oversimplified conception, opinion, or image) Men Vs Women.flv What is a typical man like? What is a typical woman like?

8 8 Stereotyped personalities Aggressive, soft, assertive, modest, independent, dependent, ambitious, gentle, considerate, strong, weak, fussy, family-friendly, sensitive, sentimental, emotional, rational, sloppy, tidy, risk-taking, risk-adverse What words would you consider to be masculine characteristics? What words would you consider to be feminine characteristics? State your reasons.

9 9 3.News Report 1—The Difference Between Men and Women.mpg 3.News Report 1—The Difference Between Men and Women.mpg Please refer to P. 58-59 Listening skill: predicting Listen to the news lead and predict the answers for the following questions. –Based on the first three sentences, why do people love to pick on Harvard? –What is the so-called “Harvard debate” probably about? –Do you think people will all agree on the president’s suggestion? –What will the anchor talk about in the report?

10 10 Listen for details Please refer to page 59Please refer to page 59 Are better at visual-spatial activities Physics and engineering Are better at using and remembering words Recognizing faces Women raised children while men hunted Is societal influences Intrinsic aptitude Would lead to more opportunities for women in science and engineering Be looking for ways to teach girls Compensate for the advantages

11 11 Post-listening questions Based on the news and your background knowledge, what kinds of jobs do men usually take? What kinds of jobs do women usually take?

12 12 Different Brains: Different Abilities Women: social workers, paralegals 律师的专职助手 and legal assistants, teachers, nurses, speech pathologists 病 理学者, dental hygienists 卫生学者, maids and housekeeping cleaners, and childcare workers. Men: chief executives, firefighters, police and patrol 巡逻 officers, electricians, dentists, and surgeons 外科医生, scientists, political leaders.

13 13 Can women do science? The answer is YES Please refer to page 64 It has been proved by the two women who have taken the top prizes at the Siemens company competition in Math, science, and Technology. 5.News Report 3—Can Women Do Science.mpg5.News Report 3—Can Women Do Science.mpg They have passion for science and girls are more organized in their work, more conscientious and also more open to constructive criticism.

14 14 Conclusion What’s sex? What’s gender? Sex differences: biological difference. (especially to the differences in organs) Gender features: social and cultural differences. What’s a typical man like? What’s a typical woman like? What kinds of jobs do men usually take? What kinds of jobs do women usually take?

15 15 Homework Preview Section Three “Women at Work” Questions Do you think women are discriminated against in the job market? Why or why not?

16 16 2nd period: Women at work 1.Discrimination 2.The new power of Chinese women

17 17 Lead in gender discrimination.flv

18 18 Gender Discrimination in the job Market Please refer to page 55 Outright: 直率地, 痛快地, 立刻地, 全部地 Underrate: 低估, 看轻 Listen to the monologue

19 19 Part III Career Women 1. Do you think there are jobs especially for men? 2. Do you think there are jobs especially for women? 3. Why is it hard for women to work their way to top management? 4. What problems might top women have? 5. Can you list some examples of sex discrimination based on your own experiences or others’? 6. What can women do to succeed in society?

20 20 News Report 2—The New Power of Chinese Women Pre-listening questions: –Do you know any great names of top women, in politics or business world? –Tell the story of your top woman and explain why she can be on the top.

21 21 Forbes: The World's 100 Most Powerful Women Chinese career women.doc

22 22 News: Please refer to page 61-62

23 23 Make a speech: sex discrimination on job market

24 24 "Male Preferred" "Male only," or "Male preferred" are the most frequent words mentioned in the recruiting information on newspaper or at job fairs. Some companies dare not declare that they want male applicants only. However, these companies will neither consider female applicants’ resumes nor contact them for an interview. Xiao Shen, a female graduate from a university in Shenyang, had sent out many resumes, but got no interview at all. A human resource manager confessed that even the most incapable male employee would bring less trouble than a female employee; therefore, his boss insisted hiring males only.

25 25 Experts mentioned that it is female employees' right to give birth to children. Therefore, companies should pay reproduction and labor protection insurance for female employees, which may cause an extra expenditure. The employers who refuse to hire female employees are actually trying to evade their social responsibility. The loss caused by hiring female employees is just an excuse for their lack of social responsibility. A survey conducted by Women's Federation of Shanghai showed that female college graduates had to try harder to find a job than male graduates. Among the 1000 respondents from 10 universities in Shanghai, 55.8 percent of the females admitted that they had encountered gender discrimination

26 26 Speech based on reading “…sex discrimination remains. Many of our female schoolmates have experienced refusal of their resumes. Many are forced to prepare for doctorate examinations, who will call it “suspending the sentence” three more years. Last year my female senior fellow pupil (in fact she is much younger than me) encountered the obstacle though she was excellent in all aspects. Luckily she was pretty, she telephoned the unit when she got the information that they wanted a male. She was accepted when she presented herself in that unit, receiving the comments “we see you are competent, so…”. ” --from a postgraduate,ON THE JOB MARKET, GZ MORNING POST

27 27 On the Job Market Besides the traditional scenarios of visiting job fairs and mailing out resumes, some female college graduates have started attaching revealing photographs to their resumes. Inclusion of an eye-grabbing photo of the student clad in a school uniform, mini-skirt or even a bikini is seen as a way to impress prospective employers and boost the chances of landing a job. Some female graduates also highlight their dancing and singing skills and boast they are heavy drinkers so as to prove themselves qualified for public relations posts.

28 28 中华人民共和国劳动法第二章 Chapter 2 Labour Law of the People's Republic of China 第十三条 妇女享有与男子平等的就业权利。 在录用职工时,除国家规定的不适合妇女的工 种或者岗位外,不得以性别为由拒绝录用妇女 或者提高对妇女的录用标准。 Article 13 Women shall enjoy equal rights as men in employment. Sex shall not be used as a pretext for excluding women from employment during recruitment of workers unless the types of work or posts for which workers are being recruited are not suitable for women according to State regulations. Nor shall the standards of recruitment be raised when it comes to women.

29 29 From a report in Chinadaily A survey of the Chinese Association of Female Entrepreneurs showed Chinese female entrepreneurs work 17 hours a day on average and 80 percent of them sleep less than seven hours each day. In the wake of economic growth, the number of female entrepreneurs is on the rise. The majority of them are college graduates and aged around 46. Though they enjoy a brilliant career, many face family crises.

30 30 Chen Lijuan, general manager of Shanghai-based Gangde Decoration Company, said, "people like to crown us with the laurel of 'women of exceptional ability or 'women of strong character'. In fact, we sacrificed almost all our time for rest and recreation, and even our health."

31 31 A Gender difference is a distinction of biological and/or physiological characteristics typically associated with either males or females of a species in general

32 32 Gender stereotypes Risk taking In many situations, men are more prone to taking risks.[6] Careers of men are often more dangerous because of this.[6] Communication Deborah Tannen’s studies found these gender differences in communication styles:[12]Deborah Tannen[12] Men tend to talk more than women in public situations, but women tend to talk more than men at home. Females are more inclined to face each other and make eye contact when talking, while males are more likely to look away from each other. Boys tend to jump from topic to topic, but girls tend to talk at length about one topic. When listening, women make more noises such as “mm-hmm” and “uh-huh”, while men are more likely to listen silently. Women are inclined to express agreement and support, while men are more inclined to debate.

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