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FORMULA OF CONCORD I.The Religious Turmoil and Its Settlement.

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1 FORMULA OF CONCORD I.The Religious Turmoil and Its Settlement







8 II. The Doctrinal Strife and Its Settlement

9 Issues in controversy Making concessions to Catholics re adiaphora: FC X Introducing subtle workrighteousness (synergism): FC IV,II,I,III Rejecting use of law (antinomianism): FC V,VI Ambiguity re doctrine of Lord’s Supper (Crypto-Calvinism): FC VII,VIII Local disputes: FC IX,XI

10 FC X: Adiaphora The Philippists who supported the Interims were willing to reintroduce Corpus Christi The highest exercise of Christian liberty is not to use it.


12 (either forbidden or commanded) D: 48

13 FC IV: Concerning Good Works Grew out of Leipzig Interim George Major (Majoristic Controversy) Inner (not outer) compulsion Good works – as natural as breathing – spontaneous


15 D: 49

16 FC II: Concerning Free Will What makes us humans? – Reason? – Emotions? – Will? What is the role of the will in conversion? Synergism


18 D: 50-52

19 FC I: Concerning Original Sin Strigel vs. Flacius Debate on free will Is original sin a substance or an accident? “You are a Manichaean.” God spiritual material Devil


21 D: 53-55

22 FC III: The Righteousness of Faith Andrae Osiander from Nuremburg At Marburg and Smalcald Vain, ousted from congregation, to Prussia Said that “Christ’s righteousness in us is our righteousness before God.” In attempting to chase the pope out the front door he let him in the back door.


24 D: 56 & 57

25 FC V: Law in Christian Life John Agricola (Augsburg Interim) “The law doesn’t need to be preached to show Christians their sins; the gospel can do it all.” “The law doesn’t condemn unbelief, the greatest of all sins.” Coarse antinomianism Law and Gospel in a broad and a narrow sense (as also repentance)

26 Apology XII:29 We know that the law is good if one uses it properly. We also know that the law is made not for the righteous but for lawbreakers and rebels, the ungodly and sinful, the unholy and irreligious. no burden or coercion

27 “The sum of the preaching of the Gospel is this: to convict of sin; to offer for Christ’s sake the forgiveness of sins…” Apology XII:29

28 FC VI: Law as Guide for the Sanctified Life Refined antinomianism Some falsely claimed that the law is not necessary to teach Christians how to live a God-fearing life. The gospel is the engine; the law is the roadmap.


30 D: 58-60

31 FC VII: The Holy Supper The Peace of Augsburg of 1555 did not grant freedom of worship to Calvinists or Sacramentarians Crypto-Calvinists Wittenberg Concord 1536



34 The Real Presence is Real 1.The Holy Spirit inspired the exact words to be written four times in exactly the same way. 2.When Christ spoke in figures he or his word explained the figures. 3.Christ recited the words with his own lips twice and exactly the same way. 4.This was the last will and testament of our Lord. 5.When Jesus spoke he knew he was facing death and it was not time to mince words.




38 Its fruits 1.Sacraments become symbols of believer’s piety. 2.Reformed piety encourages non-use of sacraments. 3.Infants baptized on strength of future faith. 4.Faith becomes its own object so that a person is directed to believe in faith rather than simple believing.

39 FC VIII: The Person of Christ Resulted from Crypto-Calvinist error regarding the Lord’s Supper: the human nature could not be present in the supper. Separated the two natures: Nestorianism Zwingli’s alloeosis


41 D: 61-63

42 FC IX: Christ’s Descent into Hell Christ descended according to both natures Hamburg: pastor thought descent was last stage of humiliation Asked Wittenburg for an opinion Luther’s sermon at Torgau in 1533

43 conceived by the Holy Spirit suffered under Pontius Pilate was crucified died and was buried He descended into hell the third day he rose again from the dead He ascended into heaven and is seated at the right hand of God the Father almighty from there he will come to judge the living and the dead HUMILIATIONEXALTATION ?


45 D: 64

46 FC XI: God’s Eternal Foreknowledge and Election Canons of Dort 1610: God elected some to salvation and others to damnation Arminius’ minority view; a subtle form of synergism Methodism influenced by Arminianism Church in Scotland influenced by Calvinism

47 Calvin: God Elect Damned Arminius: God Elect Damned faith unbelief

48 Arminianism??Calvinism?? ?? Arminianism Calvinism Arminianism Calvinism Arminianism



51 8 For it is by grace you have been saved, through faith—and this not from yourselves, it is the gift of God— 9 not by works, so that no one can boast. God our Savior, 4 who wants all men to be saved and to come to a knowledge of the truth. grace no will each one preservation crosses church always

52 D: 65-67

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