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Germanic. Verbal Inflection Indo-EuropeanGermanicpresentpast future perfect aorist past perfect.

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Presentation on theme: "Germanic. Verbal Inflection Indo-EuropeanGermanicpresentpast future perfect aorist past perfect."— Presentation transcript:

1 Germanic

2 Verbal Inflection Indo-EuropeanGermanicpresentpast future perfect aorist past perfect

3 Strong and weak verb forms Strong verbsWeak verbs singwalk sangwalked sungwalked

4 Adjective Declension weak adjectivesstrong adjectives sē gōda manngōd mann ‘(the) good man’‘(a) good man’

5 First Germanic Sound Shift *p t k  f T x/h *b d g  p t k *bh dh gh  b d g

6 Second Germanic Sound Shift timeZeit tongueZunge tenzehn thatdas thereda throughdurch panPfanne pathPfad polePfahl hatehassen eatessen letlassen gripgreifen deeptief sleepschlafen

7 Old English

8 Celtic world 1200 B.C:

9 Roman Empire 1st/2nd century


11 410Romans leave Britain 449Beginning of the Anglo-Saxon Invasion



14 Anglo-Saxon Invasion

15 Bede: Ecclesiastical History of the English Language (731)

16 Anglo-Saxon Invasion

17 Anglo- Saxon settlements

18 Celtic loan words London Thames Duncombecumb ‘deep valley’ Holcombe Winchcombe Torrtorr ‘high rock’, ‘peak’ Torcross Torhill bin

19 Old English Kingdoms

20 King Alfred the Great 871-899

21 Saint Augustine The christianizing of the Anglo-Saxons (597)

22 Early loan words from Latin wallwin streetpea pitflasce milechalk peppercopper butterbishop oniondragon plumchurch

23 Canterbury Cathedral

24 Religious loan words from Latin angelanthem disciplemartyr noonnun offerpope priestpsalm rulerelic templeshrine

25 Religious words of Germanic origin God Easter heaven hell

26 Latin loans: clothing, household, food cappear sockradish silkoyster purplelobster chestcook

27 Other Latin loan words schoolplant placebox anchorlily spongepine

28 The Viking Age

29 Viking attacks on Europe

30 Battle at Edington 878


32 Loan words from Old Norse lawleg neckbag cakeegg fellowdirt fogknife windowsky skinskirt anger sister [sweaster]

33 Loan words from Old Norse take [niman]die getcast givecut [sniðan] raisesmile calldrag wantlift

34 Loan words from Old Norse flatloose lowodd uglywrong tightweak awkwardrotten

35 Loan words from Old Norse theythough theirtill themsame (she)both are [syndon]

36 Loan words from Old Norse Grimsby–by ‘farm’ Derby Thoresby Althorpe–thorpe ‘village’ Bishopsthorpe Linthorpe

37 [sk] shirtskirt shoeskip shelfscare shinescarf

38 The Battle of Maldon 991

39 Svein (King of Denmark) Æthelred (King of England) Cnut (King of Denmark and England 1014- 1042)

40 The Lord's Prayer Fæder ure þu þe eart on heofonum; Si þin nama gehalgod To becume þin rice Gewurþe ðin willa On eorðan swa swa on heofonum. Urne gedæghwamlican hlaf syle us todæg And forgyf us ure gyltas Swa swa we forgyfað urum gyltendum And ne gelæd þu us on costnunge Ac alys us of yfele soþlice

41 Beowulf

42 Hwæt! We Gardena in geardagum, þeodcyninga, þrym gefrunon, hu ða æþelingas ellen fremedon. Oft Scyld Scefing sceaþena þreatum, monegum mægþum, meodosetla ofteah, egsode eorlas. LO, praise of the prowess of people-kings of spear-armed Danes, in days long sped, we have heard, and what honor the athelings won! Oft Scyld the Scefing from squadroned foes, from many a tribe, the mead-bench tore, awing the earls. Beowulf

43 The Battle of Maldon Then he ordered each of his warriors his horse to loose Far off to send it and forth to go, To be mindful of his hands and of his high heart.

44 The Battle of Maldon Then did Offa's Kinsman first know That the earl would not brook cowardice, Loosed he from his hands his darling to fly, His Hawk to the wood, and to the battle strode.

45 The Battle of Maldon From that one could tell that the chieftain would never Weaken in the warfare - when he his weapons seized.

46 The Battle of Maldon And after him Edric chose his chief to follow, His friend in the fight - then 'gan he forth to bear The spear to the strife - high spirit had he, So long as he with his hands to hold was able His buckler and broadsword; his boast he fulfilled That he by his friend's side should fight.

47 The Battle of Maldon Then did Brithnoth begin his men to bestow - He rode up and counselled them - his soldiers he taught How they should stand, and their standing to keep, And bade them their round shields rightly to hold Fast to their forearms, that they flinch not at all.

48 Spelling þ[ð or T] thorn ð[ð or T] eth æ[{]ash Z[Z or g]yogh S[s or z] c[k] sc[S]

49 Vowels Short vowelsLong vowels i y u e o æ a i : y : u : e : o : æ : a : Macron hīe‘they’ hū‘how’ Tense vs. lax vowels heat [i]hit [I] to [u]took [U]

50 Consonants Bilabial Labio- dental Inter- dental Alveolar Alveolar- palat. Velar Stopp bt dk g Affricate tS dZ Fricativef TsS h Nasalmn Laterall Retroflexr Glidewj

51 Allophonic variation [briÎgan]to bring[lUvU]love [driÎkan]to drink[niCt]night [f{st]fast[mo:na]moon [fi:fta]fifth[ni:Csta]next [Offrian]to offer[TUÎgEn]full grown [Ovnas]oven[hlyCan]to laugh [ha:t]hot[l@Îgan]to lengthen [hlo:T]troop[hr{vn]raven

52 [n] [Î] [ni:Csta][briÎgan] [hlyCan][driÎkan] [niCt] [TUÎgEn] [mo:na][l@Îgan] [hr{vn] [kIn] kin[kIÎ] king

53 [f][v] [f{st][lUvU] [fi:fta][hr{vn] [Offrian][Ovnas] [fAst]fast[vAst] vast

54 [h][C] [ha:t][niCt] [hlo:T][hlyCan] [hlyCan][ni:Csta]

55 Umlaut and its development: [u:] > [y:] SG Mouse PL Mice Original[mu:s] [mu:s-i] Ablaut [my:s-i] Loss of ending [my:s] Unrounding [mi:s] GEV [mais]

56 Umlaut and its development: [o:] > [ï:] SG Foot PL Feet Original[fo:t][fo:t-i] Ablaut [f ï :t-i] Loss of ending [f ï :t] Unrounding[fe:t] GEV[fi:t]

57 Irregular plural mousemice goosegeese toothteeth footfeet manmen

58 Related words bloodbleed doomdeem fullfill longlength taletell straightstretch lielay fallfell oldereldest

59 Anglo-Saxon Chronicle 878 Her … Ælfred cyning … gefeaht wið ealne here, Here … Alfred king … fought against whole army ‘Here King Alfred fought against the whole army,’ and hinegeflymde, anditput to flight ‘and put it to flight,’

60 Anglo-Saxon Chronicle 878 and him æfter rad oð þæt geweorc, anditafterrodetothefortress ‘and rode after it to the fortress,’ andþær sætXIIII niht, andtherecamped14nights ‘and there he camped for fourteen nights.’

61 Anglo-Saxon Chronicle 878 and þa sealde se here him gislas and myccle aðas, and then gave the army him hostages and great oaths ‘and then the army gave him hostages and great oaths’ þæt hi of his rice woldon, thattheyfromhiskingdomwould ‘that they would depart from his kingdom,’

62 Anglo-Saxon Chronicle 878 and him eac geheton andhimalsopromised ‘and they also promised him’ þæt heora cyng fulwihte onfon wolde, Thattheir king baptismreceivewould ‘that their king would receive baptism.’

63 Anglo-Saxon Chronicle 878 and hi þæt gelaston andthey thatdid ‘and they did these things.’

64 Modern English inflectional morphology CategoryExample Pluraltree-s GenitivePeter’s car Pasttalk-ed 3SGtalk-s Progressivetalk-ing Past Participlebeat-en

65 OE nouns: Strong declension SGPL NOMstanstan-as GENstan-esstan-a DATstan-estan-um ACCstanstan-as

66 OE nouns: Weak declension SGPL NOMnam-anam-an GENnam-annam-ena DATnam-annam-um ACCnam-an

67 Demonstratives that/theMascNeut NOMseþæt GENþæs DATþæmþæ:m ACCþoneþæt INSTþy:

68 Third person pronouns MFNPL NOMhēhēohithie GENhishierehishiera DAThimhierehim ACChinehīehithie

69 First/second person pronouns (SG) Iyou NOMicþū GENmīnþīn DATmēþē ACCmē, mecþē, þec

70 First/second person pronouns (SG-DU-PL) icI witspeaker and addressee wēspeaker and a group of addressees þūyou gityou and I yēyou PL (excluding the speaker)

71 Adjective Declension weak adjectivesstrong adjectives sē gōda manngōd mann ‘(the) good man’‘(a) good man’

72 Strong – weak verb forms StrongWeak singsangwalkwalked writewrotekisskissed telltoldaskasked

73 Regularization Old EnglishModern English climbclombclimbclimbed creepcropecreepcrept laughlowlaughlaughed yieldyoldyieldyielded stepstopestepstepped

74 Analogy Four-part analogy A :B C:X

75 Dual mechanism theory memory (route-learning) + rule-based productivity Steven Pinker 1999. Words and Rules.

76 Past tense of nonce verbs What is the past tense form of: spling sprim glick clid

77 Past tense of nonce verbs IrregularRegular spling sprim glick clid splang spram gluck clid splinged sprimmed glicked clidded

78 Irregularization Old EnglishModern English divediveddivedove catchcatchedcatchcaught

79 Verbal inflection PresentPast Indicative 1. Sgsing-esang 2. Sgsing-estsang-e 3. Sgsing-eðsang Pl.sing-aðsung-on Subjunctive Sg.sing-esung-e Pl.sing-ensung-en

80 Subjunctive in Modern English (1)If he were at home, Sally would know. (2)The people demanded that he resign. (3)I recommend that the article be rejected.

81 Conjunctions oththe... oththe‘either... or’ ge... ge‘both... and’ tha;... tha:‘when... then’ na:... na:‘neither... nor’ thonne... thonne‘when... then’ nu:... nu:‘now that’ gif... thonne‘if... then’ thæt... thæt‘that’ (complement clause)

82 Complex sentence þœtgefremedeDiulius hiora consul, þœtÞœt thatarrangedDiulius their consul COMPthat anginwearD tidliceDurthogen beginningwas in.timeachieved ‘Their consul Diulius arranged (it) that it was started on time.’

83 Adverbs N meaning body/appearance > -lic > -ly friendly homely kindly

84 Word order (1)GodbeheadedAbraham-e … Godcommanded Abraham … ‘God commanded Abraham’ S-V-O.DAT (2)Þa eode se biscop into þa oþaere cyrcan then went the bishop into that other church ‘Then the bishop went into the other church.’ ADV-V-S

85 (3)Wie hie ondredon. Wethemfeared ‘We feared them’. S-O-V (4)Þa ic þa þis eall gemunde, when I then this all remembered þa gemundeic eac hu … then remembered I also how ‘When I remembered all this, then I also remembered how … Word order

86 (5)Gehyrstþu,sælida? Hearyousailor ‘Do you hear, sailor? ’

87 Pastoral Care 1. King Alfred bids bishop Wærferth to be greeted with loving and friendly words; and bids you to know that it very often comes to my mind what wise men there formerly were throughout England, both of sacred and secular orders;

88 Pastoral Care 2. and how happy the times were then throughout England; and how the kings who then had power over the people obeyed God and his ministers;

89 Pastoral Care 3. and they maintained their peace, their morality and their power within their borders, and also increased their kingdom without; and how they prospered both with war and with wisdom;

90 Pastoral Care 4. and also how eager the sacred orders were about both teaching and learning, and about all the services that they ought to do for God;

91 Pastoral Care 5. and how men from abroad came to this land in search of wisdom and teaching, and how we now must get them from abroad if we shall have them.

92 Pastoral Care 6. So completely had wisdom fallen off in England that there were very few on this side of the Humber who could understand their rituals in English, or indeed could translate a letter from Latin into English; and I believe that there were not many beyond the Humber.

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