Presentation on theme: "Nouns Unit 2. Nouns A noun is a word that names a person, place, thing, or idea. People farmerAlexander Graham Bell Places Chicagowaiting room Things."— Presentation transcript:
Nouns Unit 2
Nouns A noun is a word that names a person, place, thing, or idea. People farmerAlexander Graham Bell Places Chicagowaiting room Things flowerskeys Ideas successhappiness
Two basic kinds of nouns Proper noun names a specific person, place, thing, or idea. Alexander Graham Bell Tarrytown “Rikki-tikki-tavi” Common noun names any one class of people, place, thing, or idea. inventor village story
Identify if the noun is a common or a proper noun. Then, if it is a common noun give an example of a proper noun. If it is a proper noun give an example of a class to which each proper noun belongs. government common, Congress pony express common, Wells Fargo
postmaster general common, Benjamin Franklin United States proper, country city common, Appleton president common, Abraham Lincoln
postal service common, U.S. Postal Service Benjamin Franklin proper, inventor century common, Victorian Era history common, the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire
Concrete and Abstract Nouns Common nouns can be either concrete or abstract. Concrete nouns things that you can see or touch. Abstract nouns name ideas, qualities, or feelings that cannot be seen or touched.
Kinds of Nouns CommonProper AbstractConcrete truthdocumentSupreme Court couragecrownQueen Victoria timesnowDecember historymuseumMuseum of Anthropology heritagebuffaloNative American
State if the underlined common noun is abstract or concrete. Born in slavery, Fredrick Douglass escaped and fled to Massachusetts. –abstract In 1841 he addressed a meeting and talked about freedom. –abstract After he spoke, he was hired to talk to other groups. –concrete
It took courage for him to speak out as he did. –abstract After his autobiography was published in 1845, he went to England. –concrete When he returned, he continued to talk about his beliefs. –abstract He helped men, women, and children flee to Canada. –concrete
Plural and Singular Nouns Singular Noun: When a noun means one only, it is said to be singular. Examples: boy, girl, book, church, box Plural Noun: When a noun means more than one, it is said to be plural. Examples: boys, girls, books, churches Rule #1 The plural of nouns is usually formed by adding - s to a singular noun. lamp - lamps cat - cats fork - forks flower -flowers pen - pens dog - dogs
Rule #2 Nouns that end in ch, sh, s, ss, x, z, zz form the plural form by adding es. moss - mosses buzz - buzzes box - boxes church - churches Special Note: If you add - s to such nouns as fox, bush, and bench, you will find that you cannot pronounce them without making an additional syllable. This is why such nouns form the plural by adding - es.
Rule #3 There are several different rules for singular nouns ending in the letters f, fe or ff when changing them to the plural form. Most nouns ending in the letters f, fe or ff form the plural by adding the letter s. surf - surfs Some nouns that end in f, fe or ff form the plural by changing the final f form to ves. calf - calves
Rule #4 Most nouns that end in i form the plural by adding the letter s. ski – skis Some nouns ending with the letter i form the plural both by adding s and/or es taxi-taxis-taxies
Rule #5 If a singular noun ends in y and is preceded by a consonant, the y is changed to i and es is added. butterfly - y + i + es = butterflies If a singular noun ends in y and is preceded by a vowel, the letter s is simply added with no other changes made. monkey + s = monkeys
Rule #6 There are some nouns that form the plurals differently. Some nouns change their vowels in the middle of the singular form when forming the plural goose – geese mouse – mice woman - women
chair –chairs star - stars dress –dresses farm –farms Spell the plural of each of the following nouns.
storm –storms brush –brushes wish –wishes paper –papers
grass –grasses computer - computers rock –rocks bench –benches fox –foxes
cup –cups cross - crosses door –doors owner –owners ax –axes
shelf –shelves man - men fly –flies day –days taxi –taxis, taxies
dwarf –dwarfs or dwarves foot - feet loaf –loaves lady –ladies tail –tails
Compound Nouns A compound noun is a noun made up of two or more words. A compound noun can be one word, like storybook; more than one word, like ice cream; or joined by hyphens, like runner-up. USE a dictionary if necessary!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Compound Nouns One WordHyphenated More Than One Word housekeepermother-in-lawdining room showcaserunner-upice cream bookmarkgreat-grandmothermaid of honor footballkilowatt-hourmusic box
Identify the compound noun in each sentence. We definitely need a new football. -football Visit the Smithsonian Institution in Washington. -Smithsonian Institution How late is the post office open on Saturday? -post office
Her outlook is always positive. -outlook How did your cousin like her new junior high school? -junior high school Paul Simon is my favorite songwriter. -songwriter
To improve, we will need a lot of teamwork. -teamwork No medicine is a complete cure-all. -cure-all This cartridge uses an advanced magnetic tape. -magnetic tape We are going to assemble a new mailing list. -mailing list
Plural Compound Nouns To form the plural of compound nouns written as one word, add –s or –es. To form the plural of compound nouns that are hyphenated or written as more than one word, make the most important part of the compound noun plural.
Forming Plural Compound Nouns SingularPlural One wordFollow plural rules. Exception: footballs headlights strongboxes rosebushes passersby HyphenatedMake the most important part of the compound noun plural. great-grandmothers runners-up More than one word Make the most important part of the compound noun plural. maids of honor music boxes
Collective Noun A collective noun names a group of individuals. classherdaudience staffteamorchestra The family struggled through the crowd to see the band.
Identify the collective noun in each sentence. An angry crowd assembled in front of the church. crowd My uncle hopes to raise a flock of sheep. flock Our class voted to have a spring picnic. class
Melissa applauded the performance of the orchestra. orchestra What did you think about the reaction of the audience? audience A company of dancers will entertain us first. company
The jury voted to acquit the defendant. jury Later, the trio played three interesting numbers. trio A squadron of soldiers surrounded the building. squadron The bill was sent to a committee for further study. committee
Singular and Plural Collective Nouns Collective nouns can have either a singular or a plural meaning. When referring to the group as a unit, the noun has a singular meaning and takes a singular verb. The team works on its defensive plays.
When referring to the individual members of the group, the noun has a plural meaning and takes a plural verb. The team go to their individual lockers.
To help you determine whether a collective noun in a sentence is singular or plural, substitute the word it for the collective noun and any words used to describe it. If the sentence still makes sense, the collective noun is singular. If you can substitute they, the collective noun is plural. The team works on its project. (it, singular) The team work on their separate projects. (they, plural)
Identify the collective noun in each sentence and state what verb form in the parentheses that best completes each sentence. The book club (discusses, discuss) their personal opinions of the plot. - book club, discuss The class (is, are) going on a bus to the art museum. - class, is
The choir from East High School (sings, sing) the loudest. - choir, sings The elephant herd (makes, make) a thundering noise during a stampede. - herd, makes The baseball team (boasts, boast) an excellent batting average. -team, boasts
The budget committee (reaches, reach) a final decision. - committee, reaches The theater troupe (come, comes) out separately at the end of the play. - troupe, come The jury (argues, argue) among themselves over the verdict. -jury, argue
Possessive Nouns A possessive noun names who or what owns or has something. Possessive nouns can be common nouns or proper nouns. They can also be singular or plural. Notice the possessive nouns in the following sentences. Rita has a book on history. Rita’s book is new.
Add an apostrophe and an –s to show the possessive of most singular nouns. father’s carDave’s book Add just and apostrophe to show the possessive case of plural nouns ending in –s or –es. dogs’ ownerchurches’ congregations
Add an apostrophe and –s to show the possessive case of plural nouns that do not end in –s or –es. the four men’s carthe geese’s honking Add an apostrophe and –s (or just an apostrophe if the word is a plural ending in –s) to the last word of a compound noun to form the possessive. high school’s mascotBoy Scouts’ trip
Spell the possessive case of the plural nouns in the following sentences adding apostrophes as needed. The gold seekers need for money led them to the Yukon. -gold seekers’ At that time, many countries economies were suffering. - countries’
The prospectors haste to reach the Yukon began in prospectors’ It was many travelers belief that they could find gold. -travelers’ Many prospectors would seek a guide assistance. - guide’s
Explorers depended on the native peoples knowledge. -people’s Settlers lives were eased by friendships with the Chinook people. -Settler’s The dogs lives were not altogether unpleasant, although they worked hard. -dogs’
Using Apostrophes with Pronouns Use an apostrophe and –s with indefinite pronouns to show possession. another’s preference nobody else’s business Do not use an apostrophe with possessive personal pronouns. my, mine, your, yours, his, her, hers, its, our, ours, their, and theirs
The following sentences contain possessive pronouns. If a possessive is written incorrectly, spell it correctly. If all pronouns in the sentence are used correctly, say they are correct. In the new claim, the lake was his and the island was their’s. -his/correct; theirs
Once prospectors reached the Klondike, they had only to find open land and stake their claims. -correct If a prospector took anothers claim, it was called “claim jumping.”. -another’s
Imagine the disappointment of surviving the trip to the Klondike only to lose what was yours’ to claim jumping! -yours Finally, the Miners’ Association was formed to protect everyones legal claims. -everyone’s The association had its first building in Discovery, the tent city of the Pine Creek. - correct
Distinguishing Plurals, Possessives, and Contractions Most plural nouns, most possessive nouns, and certain contractions end with the letter –s. As a result they sound alike and can be easily confused. Their spellings and meanings are different.
Noun Forms and Contractions ExampleMeaning Plural Noun The students wrote a play. more than one student Plural Possessive Noun The students’ play is good. the play of the students Singular Possessive Noun I saw the student’s play. the play of one student Contraction The student’s the author. The student is the author.
Contraction A contraction is a word made by combining two words into one and leaving out one or more letters. An apostrophe shows where the letters have been omitted. is not – isn’tcould not – couldn’t you are – you’rewe will – we’ll I would – I’dwhere is – where’s
Each sentence contains a word group that can be written as a contraction. Spell the new contraction. Who is the new student representative? -Who’s I am not certain whether he is upstairs or downstairs. - I’m, he’s
This pen will write if you will just keep shaking it. -you’ll You are ignoring what I am saying. -You’re, I’m Glenda is the one I would like to invite. - Glenda’s, I’d
There cannot be any doubt about who will be invited. -can’t, who’ll You will enjoy looking at these old pictures of the class of You’ll They were not sure who would be on the committee. - weren’t, who’d
Plural nouns do not have an apostrophe. The plural possessive nouns end with an apostrophe, The singular possessive nouns end with an apostrophe and an –s. You can tell these words apart by the way they are used in a sentence. Plural NounsContractions Singular Possessive Nouns Plural Possessive Nouns speakersspeaker’s speakers’ womenwoman’s women’s countriescountry’s countries’
Identify if the underlined word is a plural noun, a plural possessive noun, a singular possessive noun, or a contraction. That kitten’s sure cute. The kitten’s fur is the color of taffy. I wonder how many kittens were in the litter. The kittens’ owners must be thrilled!
In each sentence, add apostrophes to the possessive noun and the contractions. Woodrow Wilson was Americas twenty- eighth president. -America’s As a student at Princeton, he joined the schools debating society. - school’s
Before becoming president, he served as Princeton Universitys president. -University’s Wilsons regarded today as an educational and political reformer. -Wilson’s He was elected New Jerseys governor in Jersey’s
His success in New Jersey brought him to the Democrats attention. -Democrat’s Wilsons first term of office as president began in Wilson’s The wars outbreak in Europe kept his attention on foreign affairs. -war’s
Appositives Appositives give information about nouns or pronouns. An appositive is a noun or pronoun placed next to another noun or pronoun to identify, rename, or explain the preceding word. Appositives are very useful in writing because they give additional information without using many words. Ron Burns, a dentist, was elected to the City Council.
Appositive Phrase An appositive with its own modifiers creates an appositive phrase. An appositive phrase is a noun or pronoun with modifiers. It is place next to a noun or pronoun and adds information or details. The appositive phrase can be identified because it always begins with an article, a noun, or a pronoun. The noun or pronoun in an appositive phrase always follows the noun or pronoun that the phrase modifies.
The modifiers in the phrase can be adjectives or adjective phrases. San Juan de los Caballeros, the Spanish capital of the New Mexico territory, was moved to a new site in The painting, a mural in many bright colors, highlights the entrance.
Appositives and appositive phrases can also be compound. Volunteers, boys or girls, are wanted. These poems, “The Sea Gypsy” and “Before the Squall,” are about a love for the sea.
Do not put commas around the appositive when it is essential information. Without the appositive, the sentence would be The popular US president was known for his eloquent and inspirational speeches. We wouldn't know which president was being referred to. The popular U.S. president John Kennedy was known for his eloquent and inspirational speeches.
Grammar Tip Appositives provide an excellent way to combine certain types of sentences. - This antique car is a Studebaker. -It is worth thousands of dollars. This antique car, a Studebaker, is worth thousands of dollars.
Identify each appositive or appositive phrase. Next identify the noun or pronoun it renames. The capital, Santa Fe, was the place from which the Spaniards ran their territorial government. -Santa Fe: -capital
El Palacio, the Palace of the Governors, was the building where government business was carried out. -the Palace of the Governors -El Palacio Pope, a Native American leader, led a revolt against the Spanish in a Native American leader -Pope
This revolt drove their enemies, the Spanish, out of the area. -the Spanish -enemies Twelve years later, the Spanish general Diego de Vargas returned to conquer the area for the Spaniards again. -Diego de Vargas -General (The restrictive appositive, Diego de Vargas, is not set off because it’s needed to make the sentence clear.)
Combine each pair of sentences by using an appositive or appositive phrase. New Mexico is a popular tourist destination. The state is known for its beauty. -New Mexico, a popular tourist destination, is known for its beauty.
After Mexico won its independence in 1821, it was open to settlement by Americans. The territory consisted of present-day Arizona, New Mexico, Nevada, and Utah. - After Mexico won its independence in 1821, the New Mexico Territory, present- day Arizona, New Mexico, Nevada, and Utah, was open to settlement by Americans.
When trade began with the United States, the Santa Fe Trail became popular. It was a route from Santa Fe to Missouri. - When trade began with the United States, the Santa Fe Trail, a route from Santa Fe to Missouri, became popular.
In 1846, the United States declared war on Mexico, and the capture of northern Mexico became one of its first objectives. The area is now known as New Mexico. - In 1846, the United States declared war on Mexico, and the capture of northern Mexico, New Mexico, became one of its first objectives.
Bibliography Alfieri, Catherine. "Nounsense." Monroe County Women's Disability Network. Monroe County Women's Disability Network. Sept Carroll, Joyce A., Edward E. Wilson, and Gary Forlini. Prentice Hall Writing and Grammar. Boston, Massachusetts: Pearson Prentice Hall, Royster, Jacqueline J., and Mark Lester. Writer's Choice Grammar Workbooks : Teacher's Wraparound Edition. New York: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, 1996.