2Nouns A noun is a word that names a person, place, thing, or idea. PeoplefarmerAlexander Graham BellPlacesChicagowaiting roomThingsflowerskeysIdeassuccesshappiness
3Two basic kinds of nouns Proper noun names a specific person, place, thing, or idea.Alexander Graham BellTarrytown“Rikki-tikki-tavi”Common noun names any one class of people, place, thing, or idea.inventorvillagestory
4Identify if the noun is a common or a proper noun Identify if the noun is a common or a proper noun. Then, if it is a common noun give an example of a proper noun. If it is a proper noun give an example of a class to which each proper noun belongs.governmentcommon, Congresspony expresscommon, Wells Fargo
5postmaster generalcommon, Benjamin FranklinUnited Statesproper, countrycitycommon, Appletonpresidentcommon, Abraham Lincoln
6postal servicecommon, U.S. Postal ServiceBenjamin Franklinproper, inventorcenturycommon, Victorian Erahistorycommon, the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire
7Concrete and Abstract Nouns Common nouns can be either concrete or abstract.Concrete nouns things that you can see or touch.Abstract nouns name ideas, qualities, or feelings that cannot be seen or touched.
8Kinds of Nouns Common Proper Abstract Concrete truth document Supreme CourtcouragecrownQueen VictoriatimesnowDecemberhistorymuseumMuseum of AnthropologyheritagebuffaloNative American
9State if the underlined common noun is abstract or concrete. Born in slavery, Fredrick Douglass escaped and fled to Massachusetts.abstractIn 1841 he addressed a meeting and talked about freedom.After he spoke, he was hired to talk to other groups.concrete
10It took courage for him to speak out as he did. abstractAfter his autobiography was published in 1845, he went to England.concreteWhen he returned, he continued to talk about his beliefs.He helped men, women, and children flee to Canada.
11Plural and Singular Nouns Singular Noun: When a noun means one only, it is said to be singular. Examples: boy, girl, book, church, boxPlural Noun: When a noun means more than one, it is said to be plural. Examples: boys, girls, books, churchesRule #1 The plural of nouns is usually formed by adding - s to a singular noun.lamp - lamps cat - cats fork - forks flower -flowers pen - pens dog - dogs
12Rule #2 Nouns that end in ch, sh, s, ss, x, z, zz form the plural form by adding es. moss - mosses buzz - buzzesbox - boxes church - churchesSpecial Note: If you add - s to such nouns as fox, bush, and bench, you will find that you cannot pronounce them without making an additional syllable. This is why such nouns form the plural by adding - es.
13Rule #3 There are several different rules for singular nouns ending in the letters f, fe or ff when changing them to the plural form.Most nouns ending in the letters f, fe or ff form the plural by adding the letter s.surf - surfsSome nouns that end in f, fe or ff form the plural by changing the final f form to ves.calf - calves
14Rule #4 Most nouns that end in i form the plural by adding the letter s. ski – skisSome nouns ending with the letter i form the plural both by adding s and/or estaxi-taxis-taxies
15Rule #5 If a singular noun ends in y and is preceded by a consonant, the y is changed to i and es is added.butterfly - y + i + es = butterfliesIf a singular noun ends in y and is preceded by a vowel, the letter s is simply added with no other changes made.monkey + s = monkeys
16Rule #6 There are some nouns that form the plurals differently. Some nouns change their vowels in the middle of the singular form when forming the pluralgoose – geesemouse – micewoman - women
17Spell the plural of each of the following nouns. chair chairsstar - starsdressdressesfarm farms
22dwarf dwarfs or dwarvesfoot- feetloafloavesladyladiestailtails
23Compound Nouns A compound noun is a noun made up of two or more words. A compound noun can be one word, like storybook; more than one word, like ice cream; or joined by hyphens, like runner-up.USE a dictionary if necessary!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
24Compound Nouns One Word Hyphenated More Than One Word housekeeper mother-in-lawdining roomshowcaserunner-upice creambookmarkgreat-grandmothermaid of honorfootballkilowatt-hourmusic box
25Identify the compound noun in each sentence. We definitely need a new football.footballVisit the Smithsonian Institution in Washington.Smithsonian InstitutionHow late is the post office open on Saturday?post office
26Her outlook is always positive. How did your cousin like her new junior high school?junior high schoolPaul Simon is my favorite songwriter.songwriter
27To improve, we will need a lot of teamwork. No medicine is a complete cure-all.cure-allThis cartridge uses an advanced magnetic tape.magnetic tapeWe are going to assemble a new mailing list.mailing list
28Plural Compound NounsTo form the plural of compound nouns written as one word, add –s or –es. To form the plural of compound nouns that are hyphenated or written as more than one word, make the most important part of the compound noun plural.
29Forming Plural Compound Nouns SingularPluralOne wordFollow plural rules.Exception:footballsheadlights strongboxesrosebushespassersbyHyphenatedMake the most important part of the compound noun plural.great-grandmothers runners-upMore than one wordmaids of honormusic boxes
30Collective NounA collective noun names a group of individuals. class herd audience staff team orchestra The family struggled through the crowd to see the band.
31Identify the collective noun in each sentence. An angry crowd assembled in front of the church.crowdMy uncle hopes to raise a flock of sheep.flockOur class voted to have a spring picnic.class
32Melissa applauded the performance of the orchestra. What did you think about the reaction of the audience?audienceA company of dancers will entertain us first.company
33The jury voted to acquit the defendant. Later, the trio played three interesting numbers.trioA squadron of soldiers surrounded the building.squadronThe bill was sent to a committee for further study.committee
34Singular and Plural Collective Nouns Collective nouns can have either a singular or a plural meaning. When referring to the group as a unit, the noun has a singular meaning and takes a singular verb. The team works on its defensive plays.
35When referring to the individual members of the group, the noun has a plural meaning and takes a plural verb. The team go to their individual lockers.
36To help you determine whether a collective noun in a sentence is singular or plural, substitute the word it for the collective noun and any words used to describe it. If the sentence still makes sense, the collective noun is singular. If you can substitute they, the collective noun is plural. The team works on its project. (it, singular) The team work on their separate projects. (they, plural)
37Identify the collective noun in each sentence and state what verb form in the parentheses that best completes each sentence.The book club (discusses, discuss) their personal opinions of the plot.- book club, discussThe class (is, are) going on a bus to the art museum.- class, is
38The choir from East High School (sings, sing) the loudest. - choir, singsThe elephant herd (makes, make) a thundering noise during a stampede.- herd, makesThe baseball team (boasts, boast) an excellent batting average.-team, boasts
39The budget committee (reaches, reach) a final decision. The theater troupe (come, comes) out separately at the end of the play.- troupe, comeThe jury (argues, argue) among themselves over the verdict.-jury, argue
40Possessive NounsA possessive noun names who or what owns or has something.Possessive nouns can be common nouns or proper nouns. They can also be singular or plural. Notice the possessive nouns in the following sentences.Rita has a book on history.Rita’s book is new.
41father’s car Dave’s book Add an apostrophe and an –s to show the possessive of most singular nouns.father’s car Dave’s bookAdd just and apostrophe to show the possessive case of plural nouns ending in –s or –es.dogs’ owner churches’ congregations
42Add an apostrophe and –s to show the possessive case of plural nouns that do not end in –s or –es. the four men’s car the geese’s honking Add an apostrophe and –s (or just an apostrophe if the word is a plural ending in –s) to the last word of a compound noun to form the possessive. high school’s mascot Boy Scouts’ trip
43Spell the possessive case of the plural nouns in the following sentences adding apostrophes as needed.The gold seekers need for money led them to the Yukon.gold seekers’At that time, many countries economies were suffering.- countries’
44The prospectors haste to reach the Yukon began in 1896. It was many travelers belief that they could find gold.travelers’Many prospectors would seek a guide assistance.- guide’s
45Explorers depended on the native peoples knowledge. Settlers lives were eased by friendships with the Chinook people.Settler’sThe dogs lives were not altogether unpleasant, although they worked hard.dogs’
46Using Apostrophes with Pronouns Use an apostrophe and –s with indefinite pronouns to show possession. another’s preference nobody else’s business Do not use an apostrophe with possessive personal pronouns. my, mine, your, yours, his, her, hers, its, our, ours, their, and theirs
47The following sentences contain possessive pronouns The following sentences contain possessive pronouns. If a possessive is written incorrectly, spell it correctly. If all pronouns in the sentence are used correctly, say they are correct.In the new claim, the lake was his and the island was their’s.his/correct; theirs
48Once prospectors reached the Klondike, they had only to find open land and stake their claims. correctIf a prospector took anothers claim, it was called “claim jumping.”.another’s
49Imagine the disappointment of surviving the trip to the Klondike only to lose what was yours’ to claim jumping!yoursFinally, the Miners’ Association was formed to protect everyones legal claims.everyone’sThe association had its first building in Discovery, the tent city of the Pine Creek.- correct
50Distinguishing Plurals, Possessives, and Contractions Most plural nouns, most possessive nouns, and certain contractions end with the letter –s. As a result they sound alike and can be easily confused. Their spellings and meanings are different.
51Noun Forms and Contractions ExampleMeaningPlural NounThe students wrote a play.more than one studentPlural Possessive NounThe students’ play is good.the play of the studentsSingular Possessive NounI saw the student’s play.the play of one studentContractionThe student’s the author.The student is the author.
52ContractionA contraction is a word made by combining two words into one and leaving out one or more letters. An apostrophe shows where the letters have been omitted.is not – isn’t could not – couldn’tyou are – you’re we will – we’llI would – I’d where is – where’s
53Each sentence contains a word group that can be written as a contraction. Spell the new contraction. Who is the new student representative?Who’sI am not certain whether he is upstairs or downstairs.- I’m, he’s
54This pen will write if you will just keep shaking it. you’llYou are ignoring what I am saying.You’re, I’mGlenda is the one I would like to invite.- Glenda’s, I’d
55There cannot be any doubt about who will be invited. can’t, who’llYou will enjoy looking at these old pictures of the class of 1956.-You’llThey were not sure who would be on the committee.- weren’t, who’d
56Singular Possessive Nouns Plural Possessive Nouns Plural nouns do not have an apostrophe. The plural possessive nouns end with an apostrophe, The singular possessive nouns end with an apostrophe and an –s. You can tell these words apart by the way they are used in a sentence.Plural NounsContractionsSingular Possessive NounsPlural Possessive Nounsspeakersspeaker’sspeakers’womenwoman’swomen’scountriescountry’scountries’
57Identify if the underlined word is a plural noun, a plural possessive noun, a singular possessive noun, or a contraction.That kitten’s sure cute.The kitten’s fur is the color of taffy.I wonder how many kittens were in the litter.The kittens’ owners must be thrilled!
58In each sentence, add apostrophes to the possessive noun and the contractions. Woodrow Wilson was Americas twenty-eighth president.America’sAs a student at Princeton, he joined the schools debating society.- school’s
59Before becoming president, he served as Princeton Universitys president. Wilsons regarded today as an educational and political reformer.Wilson’sHe was elected New Jerseys governor in 1910.Jersey’s
60His success in New Jersey brought him to the Democrats attention. Wilsons first term of office as president began in 1913.Wilson’sThe wars outbreak in Europe kept his attention on foreign affairs.war’s
61Appositives Appositives give information about nouns or pronouns. An appositive is a noun or pronoun placed next to another noun or pronoun to identify, rename, or explain the preceding word.Appositives are very useful in writing because they give additional information without using many words.Ron Burns, a dentist, was elected to the City Council.
62Appositive PhraseAn appositive with its own modifiers creates an appositive phrase.An appositive phrase is a noun or pronoun with modifiers. It is place next to a noun or pronoun and adds information or details.The appositive phrase can be identified because it always begins with an article, a noun, or a pronoun. The noun or pronoun in an appositive phrase always follows the noun or pronoun that the phrase modifies.
63The modifiers in the phrase can be adjectives or adjective phrases. San Juan de los Caballeros, the Spanish capital of the New Mexico territory, was moved to a new site in 1610.The painting, a mural in many bright colors, highlights the entrance.
64Appositives and appositive phrases can also be compound. Volunteers, boys or girls, are wanted.These poems, “The Sea Gypsy” and “Before the Squall,” are about a love for the sea.
65Do not put commas around the appositive when it is essential information. Without the appositive, the sentence would be The popular US president was known for his eloquent and inspirational speeches. We wouldn't know which president was being referred to. The popular U.S. president John Kennedy was known for his eloquent and inspirational speeches.
66Grammar TipAppositives provide an excellent way to combine certain types of sentences.- This antique car is a Studebaker.It is worth thousands of dollars.This antique car, a Studebaker, is worth thousands of dollars.
67Identify each appositive or appositive phrase Identify each appositive or appositive phrase. Next identify the noun or pronoun it renames.The capital, Santa Fe, was the place from which the Spaniards ran their territorial government.Santa Fe:capital
68El Palacio, the Palace of the Governors, was the building where government business was carried out. Pope, a Native American leader, led a revolt against the Spanish in 1680.a Native American leaderPope
69This revolt drove their enemies, the Spanish, out of the area. Twelve years later, the Spanish general Diego de Vargas returned to conquer the area for the Spaniards again.Diego de VargasGeneral(The restrictive appositive, Diego de Vargas, is not set off because it’s needed to make the sentence clear.)
70Combine each pair of sentences by using an appositive or appositive phrase. New Mexico is a popular tourist destination. The state is known for its beauty.New Mexico, a popular tourist destination, is known for its beauty.
71After Mexico won its independence in 1821, it was open to settlement by Americans. The territory consisted of present-day Arizona, New Mexico, Nevada, and Utah.- After Mexico won its independence in 1821, the New Mexico Territory, present-day Arizona, New Mexico, Nevada, and Utah, was open to settlement by Americans.
72When trade began with the United States, the Santa Fe Trail became popular. It was a route from Santa Fe to Missouri.- When trade began with the United States, the Santa Fe Trail, a route from Santa Fe to Missouri, became popular.
73In 1846, the United States declared war on Mexico, and the capture of northern Mexico became one of its first objectives. The area is now known as New Mexico.- In 1846, the United States declared war on Mexico, and the capture of northern Mexico, New Mexico, became one of its first objectives.
74BibliographyAlfieri, Catherine. "Nounsense." Monroe County Women's Disability Network. Monroe County Women's Disability Network. Sept <http://www.mcwdn.org/grammar/endsf.html>.Carroll, Joyce A., Edward E. Wilson, and Gary Forlini. Prentice Hall Writing and Grammar. Boston, Massachusetts: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2008.Royster, Jacqueline J., and Mark Lester. Writer's Choice Grammar Workbooks : Teacher's Wraparound Edition. New York: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, 1996.