Presentation on theme: "The Early Middle Ages 7th to the 10th Century Roman Empire Decline"— Presentation transcript:
1The Early Middle Ages 7th to the 10th Century Roman Empire Decline German Invasions Affecting Artistic Development and OtherRadical Changes in Social & Political OrganizationsIn addition to the German invasions were those from Islam.
2Islamic Art Idolatry forbidden Consisted mainly of abstracts, floral patterns, or other geometric objectsSculpture almost nonexistentAbundance of monumental architecture & architectural decorations
3Islamic Art Expressions Mosque:A place to pray and face towards MeccaSahn: enclosed courtyard that all mosques have.Qibla: prayer wallMihrab: small nitche to indicate the direction of Mecca.Exterior:Tall minaretsLarge and elaborateHagia Sophia changed into a mosque
4Islam Islam means “submission to God’s will” Founded by the prophet MuhammedMessage is “brotherhood of Man” & equality before God (Allah)Differs from ChristianityNo priesthood, no religious hierarchy, sacraments or requirements of literagyDoes include rulers and leaders in prayer
5Islamic Instruction Faithfully conduct their daily lives Circumcise male infantsPray to Allah five times a day facing Mecca.Worship in the mosque on FridaysGive to the poor, Fast and practice abstinence in the daylight during RamadenAllowed multiple wives
6The Great Mosque, Cordoba Mosque built in capital cityStriking example of Islamic artDouble arches first used here were duplicated in additions.(11.1,11.2, 11.3 & 11.4)Christians later turned this into a cathedral but it still conveys the original orientation of Islam.
7Northern European Art Influenced by the Germanic tribes New focus on artistic and political activitiesNo monumental structure, paintings or sculpture was done to the constant invasionsInvaders stimulated a new craft. . .Metalwork designs and techniques
8Anglo-Saxon Metalwork Purse cover from the 17th century.Found among a pagan ship wreckage treasures suggesting royaltyIs of gold decoration; cloisonne enamel originally on ivory or bone & dark red garnets.Early Christian intelace designs and Near Eastern motifsSuttonHoo purse cover from East Anglia, England, 630 ADMerging animal forms suggest invasion
9Beowulf Earliest surviving European epic German folklore with strong Christian morality.A strange king child found adrift Denmark “Scyld Scefing”Famed was this Beowulf: far flew the boast of him, son of Scyld, in the Scandian lands. So becomes it a youth to quit him well with his father's friends, by fee and gift, that to aid him, aged, in after days, come warriors willing, should war draw nigh, liegemen loyal: by lauded deeds shall an earl have honor in every clan.
10Hiberno-Saxon Art Ireland escaped invasions at this time St. Patrick spread Christianity throughout Ireland and for years later it became a haven for scholars, missionaries, monasteries, . .Christian art also prevailed across Ireland.Style has been called Insular and Hiberno-Saxon (Hiberno is Latin for “Ireland”)
11Manuscript Illumination Illuminated manuscripts produced by monks in monasteries.Illustrated the Word of God; Visual pleasuresUsed a strict unity of color and form.Crisp, clear sometines contrasting colors; flat surfaces; patterningLion Symbol of St. John, from the Book of Durrow, After AD650. Represents St. John, Evangelist as a lion later an eagle.
12Carolingian Period Book of Kells Corresponds with the crowning of Charles the Great-Roman empr.Charlemagne ruled over the Holy Roman Empire and surrounding territories and revived culture.Network of learning was createdLatin manuscript texts. . .7LibArts11.7 Tunc Crucifixerant XPI, from the Book of Kells (Matthew 27:38) Then they crucified Christ & with him two thieves
13ManuscriptsCharlemagne’s rule involved the Roman revival of culture with manuscriptsManuscripts worked towards development of a practical form of portable artistic and educational communicationThey continued after Charlemagne’s death but more apocalyptic approachFlatter space, figures connected by geometric design rather than landscapes.
14Revelation & the Four Symbols of Evangelsits Revelation-last book of the New TestamentWritten by St. JohnJohn’s account of Christ’s word in his appearance to him.Visionary work with scripture, literary tradition and symbols: lion, bull, man, eagle.Lion: St. Mark; Bull: St. Luke; Man: St. Matthew, Eagle: St. John.11.8 Four Evangelists, from a Carolingian Gospel Book
15Monasteries Each monastery: School Network for artists and scholars to communicate.Religious and Administrative Center for economic functionsCommunal living quarters for MonksPlans for monstery of St.Gall, Switzerland; plan placed church in the center; building around in order of importance of education
16Ottonian PeriodCharlemagne’s grandsons were ineffective rulers of the European reign & fell to invaders.After the Vikings takeover, the Saxons crowned Otto I as Otto the Great, emperor.Ottonian refers to rulers named Otto who worked to continue Charlemagne’s revival of Classical antiquity.
17Major Works of the Ottonian Period Architectural work:Benedictine abbey church of St. Michael’sMetalwork at Hildesheim