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Nativism Native American Party Native American Party Know Nothings Know Nothings.

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Presentation on theme: "Nativism Native American Party Native American Party Know Nothings Know Nothings."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nativism Native American Party Native American Party Know Nothings Know Nothings

2 The Native American Party AKA The Know Nothing Party AKA The Know Nothing Party Anti-immigrant, anti-Catholic groups formed in the 1840’s in response to increased immigration from Ireland and Germany. Anti-immigrant, anti-Catholic groups formed in the 1840’s in response to increased immigration from Ireland and Germany.

3 Order of the Star Spangled Banner Formed in 1850 Formed in 1850 Becomes Native American Party in 1851 Becomes Native American Party in 1851 Supported WASP male dominance Supported WASP male dominance Thrived on secrecy, thus the nickname “Know Nothings” Thrived on secrecy, thus the nickname “Know Nothings”

4 The Know-Nothings Anti-immigrant sentiment was promoted by well-funded and well-organized social and political groups. One such group was a secret fraternal organization called the Know- Nothings. The group earned its name because its members, when asked about their group’s activities, answered by saying, “I know nothing.” The Know-Nothings reorganized themselves into a political party. The American Party would boast of more than 1 million members by the 1850s. They achieved remarkable political success in a short time, claiming more than 40 congressional seats.

5 “… [In Massachusetts] are heard the voices of her native born children, declaring for the perpetuity AMERICAN INSTITUTIONS, and AMERICAN LIBERTIES. The [people] have spoken in a voice of thunder, in favor of Americans ruling America … the warm pulsation of the people’s heart beats only for FREEDOM … and PROTESTANTISM. ” —Daily Evening Journal, November 14, 1854

6 Major Streams of 19 th Century Immigration: Population in 1820: 9.6 million, mostly English and Protestant Population in 1820: 9.6 million, mostly English and Protestant Approximate Totals : Approximate Totals : 30 million from Europe 30 million from Europe 700,000 from Asia 700,000 from Asia 900,000 from Latin America 900,000 from Latin America

7 19 th Century Immigration: Almost 2 million African American slaves in US by Between 75,000 and 100,000 citizens of Mexican provinces of CA, TX, NM, AZ made Americans by conquest in About 2.5 million Irish between 1810 and 1855 Over 3 million Germans immigrated between 1820 and ,000 Chinese immigrated between 1848 and 1882 (Chinese Exclusion Act). Major streams of 19th Century Immigration: 700,000

8 Irish Immigration

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10 Desperate, hungry immigrants suffered the nightmares of the crossing to America. Desperate, hungry immigrants suffered the nightmares of the crossing to America. So many died that the ships became known as “coffin ships”. So many died that the ships became known as “coffin ships”.

11 Link With the Past According to the 2000 Census about 30 million Americans were of Irish Ancestry According to the 2000 Census about 30 million Americans were of Irish Ancestry 43 million claimed German ancestry 43 million claimed German ancestry

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16 Nativist fears were politically, economically and culturally motivated. Anti-Irish attitudes: Race: portrayed as non-white, monkey- like. Race: portrayed as non-white, monkey- like. Work: Irish lazy, manual laborers, poor. Work: Irish lazy, manual laborers, poor. Religion: Catholicism is a foreign religion. Religion: Catholicism is a foreign religion. Violence: Irish are inherently violent savage, troublemakers. Violence: Irish are inherently violent savage, troublemakers. Politics: loyal to Pope over President, links to monarchy threaten American freedom. Politics: loyal to Pope over President, links to monarchy threaten American freedom.

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20 NO IRISH NEED APPLY I'm a decent boy just landed From the town of Ballyfad; I want a situation, yes, And want it very bad. I have seen employment advertised, "It's just the thing," says I, "But the dirty spalpeen ended with 'No Irish Need Apply.' " "Whoa," says I, "that's an insult, But to get the place I'll try," So I went to see the blackguard With his "No Irish Need Apply." Some do count it a misfortune To be christened Pat or Dan, But to me it is an honor To be born an Irishman. I started out to find the house, I got it mighty soon; There I found the old chap seated, He was reading the Tribune. I told him what I came for, When he in a rage did fly, "No!" he says, "You are a Paddy, And no Irish need apply."

21 HISTORY’S VOICES The American Party even ran a presidential candidate in 1856 (Millard Fillmore). Eventually disagreements over slavery and related political issues fractured the party, and it ceased to exist by the time of the Civil War.

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23 American Nativist Party Platform (1) Extend the period of naturalization to 21 years. (1) Extend the period of naturalization to 21 years. (2) Elect only native born to all offices. (2) Elect only native born to all offices. (3) Reject foreign interference in all institutions, social, religious, and political. (3) Reject foreign interference in all institutions, social, religious, and political.

24 Hostility Toward the Irish Why? More than 1.3 mill Irish came between More than 1.3 mill Irish came between Out of a population of about 24 million this was considered a threat to their way of life. Out of a population of about 24 million this was considered a threat to their way of life. Resented because of their poverty and seen as a threat to American workers. Resented because of their poverty and seen as a threat to American workers. Religion Religion

25 Religious Discrimnation Most Irish immigrants were Roman Catholics and the U.S. was predominantly Protestant. Most Irish immigrants were Roman Catholics and the U.S. was predominantly Protestant. Some believed that Catholicism was at odds with the principles of democracy. Some believed that Catholicism was at odds with the principles of democracy.

26 HISTORY’S VOICES Voices From History “Popery cannot tolerate our form of government … Popery does not acknowledge the right of the people to govern; but claims for itself the supreme right to govern all people and all rulers by divine right … It does not tolerate liberty of conscience nor liberty of opinion.” -Samuel F.B.Morse Inventor of the first practical telegraph —Samuel F. B. Morse

27 Political Cartoon: The Pope’s Dream Illustrates nativist sentiment towards Catholic immigrants. Illustrates nativist sentiment towards Catholic immigrants. Catholics are depicted as anti-democratic and loyal primarily to the Pope. Catholics are depicted as anti-democratic and loyal primarily to the Pope. The “Pope’s Dream” is to preside over The “Pope’s Dream” is to preside over “A Catholic America” that values “The Church First—The Country Afterwards”

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35 German Immigrants Faced A different Experience Nearly as many Germans as Irish immigrated to the United States in the mid-1800s. Fortunately for the Germans, they did not encounter the same hostility that greeted Irish immigrants. Whereas most Irish immigrants were poor and Catholic, most German immigrants were middle class and Protestant. German immigrants spread across the country. They could afford to travel far inland, seeking free or cheap land, reunions with relatives, or other opportunities in the heartland. Many settled in the Midwest, but large German immigrant communities could be found from New York to Texas. German immigrants worked as farmers, artisans, factory workers, and in other occupations.

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38 Anti-Chinese Sentiments Violence Violence Racism Racism Political and Economic Discrimination Political and Economic Discrimination

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44 Philadelphia Nativist Riots May 1844 Was a reaction to influx of Irish immigrants. Was a reaction to influx of Irish immigrants. Between 1820 and 1865 over 80,000 Irish migrated to Philadelphia. Between 1820 and 1865 over 80,000 Irish migrated to Philadelphia. Tensions started over the issue of religion in public schools. Tensions started over the issue of religion in public schools.

45 Protestant majority controlled actions of school system Protestant concepts were in direct conflict with the teachings of the Catholic church. Protestant concepts were in direct conflict with the teachings of the Catholic church. After many attempts Catholics won non- denominational schooling in the Phila. After many attempts Catholics won non- denominational schooling in the Phila. Protestant groups objected and took their objections to the streets. Protestant groups objected and took their objections to the streets. Catholics later withdraw from public schools to form private Catholic schools. Catholics later withdraw from public schools to form private Catholic schools.

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47 Results of the Riots Significant property damage. Significant property damage. Churches and convents were burned. Churches and convents were burned. Homes were broken into and burned, Irish families beaten. Homes were broken into and burned, Irish families beaten. Area of focus was “Irish” Kensington and Southwark. Area of focus was “Irish” Kensington and Southwark. Many were injured, some fatally wounded. Many were injured, some fatally wounded.

48 Martial law was enforced for a week Sheriff and deputies were w/o guns and were ineffective. Sheriff and deputies were w/o guns and were ineffective. Militia general and his troops were fired upon. Militia general and his troops were fired upon. Nativists later said the general favored immigrants and trampled on the rights of native Americans Nativists later said the general favored immigrants and trampled on the rights of native Americans

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53 Linking the Past and Present Students can use the website for the Southern Poverty Law Center to research present day examples of nativism. Students can use the website for the Southern Poverty Law Center to research present day examples of nativism. Interactive U. S. Map Web Address: Interactive U. S. Map Web Address:

54 Southern Poverty Law Center The Southern Poverty Law Center's Intelligence Project counted 844 active hate groups in the United States in Only organizations and their chapters known to be active during 2006 are included.

55 Link to Present Day Nativism Nutley, NJ (Assault) Published on "Kerri A. Livesay, 34, was charged with simple assault and a bias crime after allegedly screaming curses and assaulting a teen wearing traditional Muslim garb at a store." Jackson, NJ (Assault) Published on "Christopher Clauder Jr., Christopher Balasone, Andre Ferreira and Edward Fischer, all 18, were charged with assault and bias intimidation for allegedly throwing eggs and shouting racist epithets at people in a neighborhood. Three 17-year-olds were also charged with juvenile delinquency."

56 Wanaque, NJ (Vandalism) Published on "Three teenage girls were charged with criminal mischief, harassment and bias intimidation for allegedly vandalizing the home of an Asian man with ketchup, white rice, dishwashing detergent, and an epithet directed at Chinese people." Little Falls, NJ (Harassment) Published on "David Liscio, 32, was charged with harassment, making terroristic threats and bias intimidation after he allegedly shouted racial slurs at a Latino Muslim woman. "

57 Southern Poverty Law Center Map-NJ Hate Groups Hate groups in New Jersey


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