CRM and Loyalty 2001017 Kim, Mi Young eCommerce ICE720, 2002
2 Contents Part 1. Customer Relationship Part 2. Customer Loyalty Part 3. Approach to Loyalty Program Part 4. Loyalty Program case study Part 5. Summary and Conclusions Part 6. References
3 Part 1. Customer Relationship 1.CRM 2.Relationship Marketing 3.CRM and Behaviour Type
4 What is CRM? What is CRM? Simply stated, Customer Relationship Management (CRM) is about finding, getting, and retaining customers. CRM is at the core of any customer-focused business strategy and includes the people, processes, and technology questions associated with marketing, sales, and service. In today's hyper-competitive world, organizations looking to implement successful CRM strategies need to focus on a common view of the customer using integrated information systems and contact center implementations that allow the customer to communicate via any desired communication channel. Lastly, CRM is a core element in any customer-centric eBusiness strategy. From www.realmarket.com
5 Service/ Product Satisfaction dissatisfaction repurchase Good word of mouth Loyal customization Creating new customer Increase revenue Brand switch Bad word Of mouth Losing customer losing potential customer Decrease Revenue Effect of CRM CS Guarantees Company’s Revenue?
6 CM (Customer Management) Products Control Result Secret Sales Volume Departure Route Destination Customers Communication Continuity Public Loyalty Acknowledgement about Relationship CRM (Customer Relationship Management) CRM and Customer Loyalty There is always the risk that a customer will defect when a competitor offers better value or a wider range of value added options. -> Loyalty Programs must motivate loyal buyers to repurchase.
7 Relationship Marketing Focuses on getting and keeping customers Concerned with customer loyalty Aimed at developing long-term, cost-effective links between an organization and its customers All customer relationships are worth keeping Customer retention Impact on profitability and past research has claimed that it can be 5 times more expensive to obtain a new customer. The Pareto rule Profit in business comes from repeat customers, customers that boast about your product and service, and that bring friends with them ( cited in Lowernstein, 1995)
8 Customer satisfaction and Behaviour type 1 2 3 4 5 Strong dissatisfaction so – so Strong satisfaction Possibility of Loyalist (expectation < experience) Defectors Mercenaries (Expensive to Acquire, Quick to Depart) Hostages Terrorists Who’ve had Bad Experiences with the Company & The Company didn’t respond to them. Competitors’ discounts offering or benefits Source :Keki R. Bhote, “Beyond Customer Satisfaction to Customer Loyalty”, 1996 Proliferation of Loyalists (10~50%)
9 Why customers leave even they are satisfied? In US, survey of CS about Cars, Almost 90% of answers are satisfied. Repurchase rate of same brand car company is below 30%. Hard for finding rule of relationship between CS and customer break away. CS does not guarantee repurchase of customers Customer loyalty is needed.
11 Part. 2 Customer Loyalty 1.What is Customer Loyalty? 2.Customer Satisfaction Strategy 3.Why Customer Loyalty? 4.Case Study (online and offline)
12 What is Loyalty? The key to the successful adoption of relationship marketing lies in the building of client loyalty in dynamic business environments. (Morris, 1999) In a business context loyalty has come to describe a customer’s commitment to do business with a particular organization, purchasing their goods and services repeatedly, and recommending the services and products to friends and associates. (Barnett,2000) Loyal Customer can mean a consistent source of revenue over a period of many years. However, this loyalty cannot be taken for granted. It will continue only as long as the customer feels they are receiving better value than they would obtain from another supplier.
13 Why Customer Loyalty? Relationship between CS and C Loyalty Relationship between Loyalty and Profitablity X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Customer Loyalty Rating (%) Indexed Customer Satisfaction Rating (%) Profitability (%) Loyalty (Retention Rate (%) Source : Keki R. Bhote. “ Beyond customer satisfaction to customer loyalty ”, 1996 X X X X X X X X X X XX X X X X X X X X
14 How to build Loyalty? Framework of building Loyalty CRM (CR Strategy) Trust/ Intimacy Reward Program /Continuing Campaign Repurchase / Cross-selling Improving Core Products/Service Innovation of Channel Mgmt. Customer Satisfaction Customer Loyalty Phased Elements Drivers Degree of Relationship Attitude, not Action Action, not Affinity (Artificial Loyalty) Recognition of Relationship, Referral
15 Case Study: Amazon.com (online case) Suggest and find what customers wants positively Remind customers of relationship and be concerned about customers continuously Never forget customers who visit before Customer Strategy Differentiated customer value suggestion Intensify reward program Building customer loyalty Mi’s Gold Box without any input my information
16 Case Study: ScrubaDub (offline case) Automotive carwash business: Differentiated strategy based on CRM Differentiated approach to CustomersDifferentiated approach to Customers : focus on quality than customer quantities Investigated all costs in terms of customers washing times and expenditure per customers FindingsFindings 1. 75% of whole customers are below 6 times, low visit rate in a year. Therefore, rest 25% are visit rate over 60% 2. 2. Segmented 5 level in terms of annual visit rate (the lowest level /low level/average/high level/the highest level) Between visit rates and spending money, there is relationship something. 3. So, relationship marketing need to invest high on customers who has low revenues and invest low vice versa.
17 ScrubaDub Strategy Who is the highest value customer? -> high visit rates customer Not a customer who owns a large car ★ high income customers ★ Jeep or compact car owners ★ A driver who has a car below 3 year Relationship marketing New display design Offer resting place with free coffee, snacks Building Personal relationship Increasing staffs at peak time for saving customer waiting time Discount scheme(Offering free washing coupon) Car washing guaranteeCar washing guarantee (free car washing if there is rainy or snowy within 3 days after car washing) Effects: average growth rate 12.5% (cf. others: 7%)
18 Part 3. Approach Customer Loyalty Programs 1.Loyalty programs 2.Strategic reward programs 3.Core strategies building reward programs
19 Loyalty program: Reward The plan objectives for this program are: 1.Effectiveness, cost savings, profitability, etc. 2.Develop a greater sense of concern and loyalty about the company or brand 3.Strengthen communications between customers and companies. 4.Provide financial rewards to customers who have demonstrated performance or contribution 5.Enhance the Company’s ability to meet or exceed its target goals. Campaign and Reward Discrete Communication Model individual Approach Loyalty Continuous Communication Model Mass Approach
20 Reward types Promotion (Price) Airline Mileage, Coupon Lotteries (Instant Scratchies) Multi-product Frequent-buyer DirectlySupportsValue Proposition Proposition OtherindirectTypes of reward Immediate Delayed “ Dowling.,Mark Uncles, 1997” Timing of Reward Type of reward Continuity Reward
21 4 characters to differentiate 4 Attributes ( A ccomplishment) (Continuity) (Attraction)(Acquisition) Points acquisition Reward offering cycle and Getting Reward gifts Not for short term events Induce repurchase Based on customer needs for offering rewards Offering diverse Reward options For acquiring new customer For acquiring customers from competitors
22 Loyalty Program Reward Schedules (A) Typical Response Functions (B) An Alternative Response Function (Airlines Mileage Card) Airlines often use a variation of this scheme where an economy class airfare attracts 1 point per kilometer or dollar spent (GM Auto Card) point #of $Spent Accumulated Spending Access to Rewards (Citibank) Citigold banking, Citibanking, General DB According to Household ( offspring get same level with parents)
23 Part 4. Case Study: One of International Hotel in NZ Background: in Palmerston North, NZ 1. Location A provincial city, with approximately 75,000 people It is not a major destination for international visitors to NZ. But it does host a large number of conferences each year 2. Objective The one of an international larger chain of hotels. The business manager believes that if it were not for the revenue from the other facilities, the hotel would struggle to remain open on accommodation revenue alone. 3. Marketing Corporate marketing programs initiated by head office have not always worked in the hotel, so local marketing initiatives have been launched in Palmerston North. Some specific events marketing to improve its weekend occupancy rates and this seems to have been successful. Follow-up letters. The latest marketing push= a Gold Card to increase new customers and entice past customers to return.$39.50, provides various discounts and special occasion offers 4. Methodology: A mail survey was sent to all customers on the hotel Gold Card DB. A 4 page questionnaire to 700 customers.
24 Data Analysis and discussion Card purchase and features 1.For personal use 2.Because good range of benefits offered 3.Because good value for money The data show that 2/3 purchasers were new customers of the hotel.1/3 said they purchased the card because of persuasive sellers. Purchasers of card were more interested in the local facilities like the, bar, family restaurant and health club. Percent of respondents using the services was fairly low, except for the family restaurant to cheap deals. As a customer retention strategy its success is therefore doubtful. There were a number of comments from respondents that referred to their dissatisfaction. Customers are unlikely to return or become loyal if they are dissatisfied with the service provided. (Dube, 1994) This highlights the point that satisfaction is not an accurate indicator of customer loyalty.
25 Part 5. Summary & Conclusion The customers of the hotel who purchased a card and responded to the questionnaire, exhibit the characteristics of Morgans “mercenaries” (1996 ). High satisfaction, low to medium loyalty and low commitment to the company. In order to succeed, loyalty programs need to develop “loyalists” (Morgan, 1996)- customers who have high satisfaction, high loyalty and who will stay and be supportive of the company. The hotel case study: to build customer loyalty and therefore retention by selling a discount card in Palmerton North. Discount card does not appear to increase customer loyalty and that many customers buy the card because they perceive it to be good value for money. Summary Conclusion
26 Part 6. References Dowling, Uncles 1997, “ Do customer loyalty programs really work?”, Sloan Management Review, Vol. 38 McIlroy, Barnett 2000, “ Building customer relationships: do discount cards work? ” Managing Service Quality Journal Vol. 10 2000 Gustafsson 2000, “ Improving Customer Satisfaction, Loyalty, and Profit” Jossey- Bass Inc.